SEA power had been almost decisive in this war. The Northern blockade had ruined the South, whose funds largely depended on the cotton trade. The war produced the " ironclad " battleship in a crude form. It also saw the usual friction between the United States and England about the freedom of the seas. The United States Navy, for instance, held up the Trent, a British vessel, to seize two Confederate emissaries, while England allowed Confederate raiders (notably the Alabama) to be equipped in British ports. The former incident very nearly led to war, but good sense on both sides prevailed. The Alabama case was submitted by Gladstone to arbitration, and the grotesque American claims were discharged for a few millions. There still were large numbers of English people who would have preferred to spend a few hundred millions on a war.

Lincoln's more or less accidental successor, President Johnson, fought hard to mitigate the terms imposed on the South, but his Congress, maddened by the four years of civil war, impeached him for his pains. The emancipation of all slaves was a reasonable condition of peace, but Congress also enfranchised the liberated slaves, and Northern adventurers (the original " carpet-baggers ") were elected by their votes to offices which gave them control of Southern State funds. The Southerners, notably in South Carolina, formed a terroristic society, the Ku Klux Klan, which, with the usual blend of buffoonery and murder, succeeded in preventing negroes from voting.

The financial effects of the war were made good inside twenty years, and even the South has progressed rapidly in recent times. The racial stock of the United States, however,

was perhaps irreparably damaged by the killing, and it is not altogether certain that the negroes gained anything by being enfranchised in that particular manner.