VICTOR EMMANUEL was harassed by repeated attempts on Garibaldi's part to seize Rome, and by the knowledge that Austria would soon strike back. He found an ally in Bismarck, the Prussian Chancellor, and in 1866, therefore, while Prussia was defeating Austria in Bohemia, Italy attacked her by land and sea, and, though Italy was defeated, Bismarck saw that she got Venetia. The withdrawal of the French garrison from Rome during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 gave Italy her traditional capital. The step was ratified by a suspiciously unanimous plebiscite, and the Pope became henceforward a voluntary prisoner in the Vatican. For a time the temporal power of the Papacy was ended, to be restored in miniature form in 1929, but the doctrine of Papal Infallibility had been confirmed by a recent Church Council, and the spiritual power of the Pope has increased considerably since.

Austria still ruled some Italians in the Trentino, but Italy was virtually united. Her actions as a nation between 1870 and 1915 did singularly little to justify the spiritual claims of Nationality advanced by Mazzini.