THE news of the Paris Revolution caused the pro-French clerical party to rebel against the Dutch King of the Netherlands, who was very rapidly driven out. The party desired union with France or independence under one of Louis Philippe's sons. England, Prussia, and Austria, however, after some years' skirmishing and diplomatic argument, compelled them to accept and the King of Holland to recognise Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg as King. It proved an admirable choice. The new state was called Belgium, after its ancient inhabitants the Belgae; its Government promised not to make war, and the five great Powers, including France, undertook not to make war on it. This treaty was the "Scrap of Paper " of 1914. This affair and the Greek rebellion were settled by the Powers with greater dignity and disinterested-ness-and therefore more success-than was usual in the eighteenth century.

The year 1830 was one of minor revolutions elsewhere. In Germany there were attempts to force kings to "grant constitutions" (which was taken to mean some kind of parliament) and to exact a promise from them to act more or less in accordance with its wishes. These movements were suppressed by military force. So was the anti-Russian movement in Russian Poland, where misgovernment aggravated a desire to regain national independence. Henceforward, the Polish language, flag, and other national institutions and emblems were proscribed, and resentment accumulated.

Attempts of a similar kind were being made in Italy. That "geographical expression" included (i) Austrian Lombardo-Venetia and various Austrian dependencies, of which Tuscany was the chief: (2) Sardinia, i.e. Piedmont, Savoy, Genoa, and Sardinia, a kingdom ruled by a native Italian prince: (3) the Papal States, stretching across central Italy and ruled, very badly indeed, by the Pope: (4) the Kindom of Naples, that is the South of Italy and Sicily, where the worst misgovernment of all took place under a line of Bourbon degenerates. Italy had forgotten the great traditions of Imperial Rome: the country was divided geographically in an inconvenient manner by the central mountains: there were several very different, and mutually unfriendly, types of Italian in the North, Centre, and South:

the Austrian garrison, police, and spies, as well as the Pope, stood in the way of unification, which was the dream of a few eager young men of the student class. They used the old secret society of the Carbonari (literally " Charcoal Burners "), and in 1830 there were outbursts in several cities, as there had been in Naples in 1820. They were suppressed, as the 1820 revolt had been, by Austrian forces.

After 1830 Metternich still ruled unshaken, the supreme foe of Liberalism and Nationalism in Germany, Italy, and the miscellaneous dominions of Austria. However, Liberalism had held its own in France, Nationalism had triumphed in Belgium and Greece, and reformers were winning what seemed to be a definite triumph in England. The English Reform Bill will be described later. In Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Austrian dominions, ardent nationalists continued to work in secret, at the risk of imprisonment. In most countries there was agitation for Liberal reforms, and in England there was the "Chartist" movement which demanded a fully representative parliament. In France reformers were preaching Socialism.