WHEN the Peace of 1815 was made, the German enthusiasts (middle class students, professors, journalists, and lawyers) were given a form of German union, the impotent Bund, and concessions to Liberal ideas were made in the states of Germany outside Austria, Within a few years, however, the princelings were suppressing their Diets or Parliaments and the Carlsbad decrees of 1819 announced the opposition of Austria and Prussia to political discussion, especially in those hotbeds of Liberalism, the German universities. It was not surprising to find Prussia on the side of military reaction, but her subservience to Austria between 1813 and 1858 was entirely due to the weak character of her two kings who ruled in these years. Prussia did indeed form a Commercial Union (the Zollverein of 1818), which all her small neighbours gradually entered, until most of Germany was enjoying internal free trade; the dislike of Prussian manners was neutralised by commercial ties. The governments of the smaller states, however, continued to support Austria.

Meanwhile in France two brothers of Louis XVI. reigned in succession. Louis XVIII. did something to modify the zeal of the ultra-royalist and Catholic party which gained control and which desired to take revenge on adherents of Napoleon. The second brother reigned as Charles X. (1824-30) and endeavoured to undo the Revolution by giving national money to buy back the estates of nobles and clergy which had been confiscated, by depriving the Press of the right of free discussion, and by assuming the right to make laws. The students and workpeople of Paris rebelled, the troops sympathised, Charles went into exile, and various leaders, including some figures of the Revolution of 1789, took charge. They offered the crown to Louis Philippe, a distant member of the Bourbon house, who had learned more than its other members from the Revolution. He became King of the French and promised to rule as a Citizen King.