if we close this rapid survey with a glance at the map in 1500 we find great changes. The Moslems are out of Spain, but the Tartars are still in Russia and the Turks are pressing across the Danube. The West and Scandinavia have national states, with Poland as the outpost of Latin civilisation. The Czechs are about to fall before the Germans, the Magyars before the Turks, and Germans and Turks are to settle the destinies of Danubian Europe in a secular struggle. Italy is once again to be a battle-ground of ambitions, and Germany, a congeries of princes, dukes, counts, and bishops, is about to be rent politically by the Reformation, against which Rome and the Emperor will once again be allies. Gutenberg's printing press has produced many another volume, Vasco da Gama has rounded the Cape of Good Hope. America is on the map, and Magellan, who will circumnavigate the globe, is a young man. We are in modern times, and the world, in spite of the fact that its ships are cockle shells, is already a tiny place.