both in France and England distress provoked peasant risings; there was the Jacquerie (from " Jacques Bon-homme," a nickname for the French peasant) in France and Wat Tyier's rebellion in England (1381). The latter was chiefly due to the economic consequences of the Black Death, which killed between one-third and one-half of the population in 1348 and 1349 and dislocated the social life of the country. Added to this, we should note the effects of the vaguely Socialist views of some of Wycliffe's disciples. But the moment the national economy recovered and England was ready, the peace was broken. The French stirred up trouble in Scotland and supported rivals to the house of Lancaster, which renewed the claim to the French throne. The moment was favourable, for France was rent with faction. The royal house was at odds at once within itself and with its vassals, particularly its kin, the Dukes of Burgundy, who had succeeded . in carving out a considerable empire for themselves on the eastern frontiers of France. Henry V. had no difficulty in repeating the triumph of Crecy at Agincourt (1415), and in securing a diplomatic success such as had been denied Edward by obtaining the Burgundians as allies. He proceeded methodically to reduce Normandy; he was a precursor of modern war as well as one of the last of paladin or knight-errant kings. The murder of John of Burgundy turned the Burgundians into active allies, and France was forced to see Paris lost and to accept the humiliating Treaty of Troyes (1420).

Henry married the French king's daughter and was recognised as heir to the French throne, but his premature death ruined possibilities on which it is curious to look back. War broke out again and English commanders, backed by their people under a by no means popular regency, very nearly succeeded in achieving on the field what Henry had obtained potentially by diplomacy. But disaster produced Joan of Arc, a daughter of the common people, and, though the issue of the war was determined more by the withdrawal of the Bur-gundians from the English alliance than by the Maid's feats in the field, Orleans (1429) was none the less a worthy if belated successor to Morgarten. Peace was finally made on the basis of the surrender of her claims by England, though she retained Calais; but the significant thing was the consecration of French nationality. In the West the key states for the future of Western civilisation were now all national states.

In Spain, indeed, nationalism had always been a force, because only on nationalism could the religious struggle against the Moslem be based, but the kings of the Spanish kingdoms not only went on quarrelling among themselves, but were drawn into the vortex of continental politics. They became involved in France and Italy, not always with fortunate results; they fought each other, and wars like the attempt by Castile to subdue Portugal in 1385, and civil wars like that which led to the invasion of Castile by England's Black Prince and his victory of Najera in 1367, prevented that unity of effort which would have ended Moslem intrusion. The union of Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella in 1479 and the conquest of Granada in 1492 belong really to another epoch, for it was Isabella who made the voyage of Columbus possible, and the discovery of America belongs to modern history. Even then, the union of the peninsula was not complete. The little kingdom of Portugal developed a sturdy nationalism, and under the inspiration of one of the most remarkable men of his time, Henry called the Navigator, (1394-1460), son of King Juan II., began, by sending out explorers to Africa, the age of discovery.