HAD Augustus made his monarchy hereditary and " by law established " many difficulties that arose later might have been avoided. Whilst his descendants lived, loyalty to his name kept the succession undisputed, but after his family had died out there was often a crop of pretenders who weakened the man-power and the resources of the Empire by bitter civil wars. On his death in A.D. 14, Augustus was succeeded by his step-son, Tiberius, whose aim was government not for the sake of the governed but for the sake of efficiency. Haughty and morose by nature, he despised the people and, suspecting the Senate of disloyalty, he encouraged informers to trump up charges of treason against wealthy or prominent men. The provinces which were further away fared better and were well governed. After living in retirement for some years at Capri, a beautiful little island in the Bay of Naples, Tiberius died unlamented in A.D. 37. His short-lived and frenzied successor Caligula (A.D. 37-41) was succeeded by Claudius (A.D. 41-54), " the wisest fool " in his Empire. Though clumsy in appearance and speech, Claudius displayed a liberal outlook. Augustus's policy of restricting grants of citizenship was reversed, and Gallic chiefs were admitted to the Senate. Claudius rightly justified this action on the ground that it was a security for the safety of the Empire. During his reign South Britain was made a province. He also began organising an Imperial Civil Service, and appointed special secretaries to attend to home and foreign affairs and to the Treasury. Nero (A.D. 54-68), after governing well for five years under the advice of Seneca (about 4 B.C.-A.D. 65), a Stoic philosopher, threw over his adviser and gave himself up to art and debauchery. When the Spanish armies revolted and began to march on Rome, Nero committed suicide. During his reign occurred a terrible massacre of the Christians, who were accused of setting Rome on fire. A strange sect, of whom as yet little was known, they were charged with hatred of the human race, and became natural victims of popular frenzy and ignorance. During the years A.D. 14-68, the show of republicanism had begun to wear very thin, for each emperor was now voted his powers for life, instead of for a term of years, as in the time of Augustus. The Western provinces developed rapidly in commerce and civilisation. The tribes were encouraged to build cities and to adopt the Latin language and civilisation. Already in the first century A.D., Spain sent to Rome such writers as Seneca, the philosopher, and Lucan (39-65 A.D.), the poet of the Civil Wars between Csssar and Pompey. Native chiefs were being appointed to important governships and, before long, Trajan and Hadrian were to provide the Empire with rulers of Spanish origin. In the East, Rome came as a pupil rather than as a teacher, but she brought peace and prosperity as a fair exchange for Greek learning.