This defeat stopped the Latin civilisation from spreading through Germany, in which event Europe would have been entirely Roman, and Britain might never have been colonised by the English. The army which safeguarded the frontiers consisted of 150,000 men who served for twenty years. The soldiers took their oath to the Emperor and received their pay from him. Auxiliary forces were raised from the warlike provinces and stationed in the districts where they were enlisted. At the end of their service, these auxiliaries were rewarded with citizenship and gifts of land. The provinces benefited most by the rule of Augustus. Under the republic, the governors had been practically irresponsible autocrats. Augustus made them responsible to himself, limited them to administration only, and appointedspecial officials for financial and military affairs. Instead of being allowed to fleece the provincials, the governor was given a fixed salary, and often kept in office for long periods so that he obtained full experience and did not have to leave just as he was beginning to learn the routine. Even from the senatorial provinces, an appeal was allowed to the jurisdiction of the Emperor. Augustus made a statistical survey of the resources of the Empire, assessed the taxes more fairly, and reduced them in amount. The proceeds were largely spent on the provinces themselves, and were devoted to the construction of roads, bridges, and aqueducts. In Italy Augustus restored peace and prosperity. In Rome he erected so many public buildings that he boasted that he found the city brick and made it marble. The seeds of a caste system were laid by the grant of different offices to different classes. The Senate, for example, provided the governors for the more important provinces, while the knights, who were appointed by Augustus himself, were given the new offices, such as the Prefecture of the Prastorian Guards, and the governorships of some of the less important provinces. By marriage laws, and religious reforms, Augustus tried to revive the old Roman family life, but he could not undo the effect of two hundred years of unlimited wealth and oriental luxury and vice.