There is a rapidly growing appreciation of perennial herbs, not only as flower-garden and lawn subjects, but as parts of native landscapes. Every locality yields its wild asters, golden-rods, columbines, iris, trilliums, lilies, anemones, pentstemons, mints, sunflowers, or other plants; and many of these also make good subjects for the home grounds.

It is important to remember that some perennial herbs begin to fail after one to three seasons of full bloom. It is a good plan to have new plants coming on to take their place; or the old roots may be taken up in the fall and divided, only the fresh and strong parts being planted again.

Perennial herbs are propagated in various ways,--by seeds, and by cuttings of the stems and roots, but mostly by the easy method of division. On the raising of these plants from seeds, William Falconer writes as follows in Dreer's "Garden Book" for 1909:--

"Hardy perennials are easily grown from seed. In many cases they are a little slower than annuals, but with intelligent care they are successfully raised, and from seed is an excellent way to get up a big stock of perennials. Many sorts, if sown in spring, bloom the first year from seeds as early as annuals; for instance: gaillardia, Iceland poppies, Chinese larkspur, platycodon, etc. Others do not bloom until the second year.

"The amateur may have more success and less bother growing perennials from seed sown in the open ground than from any other way. Prepare a bed in a nice, warm, sheltered spot in the garden, preferably not very sunny. Let the surface of the bed be raised four or five inches above the general level, and the soil be a mellow fine earth on the surface. Draw shallow rows across the surface of the bed three or four inches apart, and here sow the seeds, keeping the varieties of one kind or nature as much together as practicable, covering the seeds thinly; press the whole surface gently, water moderately, then dust a little fine loose soil over all. If the weather is sunny or windy, shade with papers or a few branches, but remove these in the evening. When the seedlings come up, thin them out to stiffen those that are left, and when they are two or three inches high, they are fit for transplanting into permanent quarters. All this should be done in early spring, say March, April, or May. Again, in July or August perennials are very easily raised out of doors, and much in the same way as above. Or they may be sown in early spring indoors, in the window, the hotbed, the coldframe, or the greenhouse, preferably in boxes or pans, as for growing annuals. Some gardeners sow seed right in the coldframe. I have tried both ways, and find the boxes best, as the different varieties of seeds do not come up at the same time, and you can remove them from the close frame to more airy quarters as soon as the seed comes up, whereas, if sown in a frame, you would have to give them all the same treatment. When the seedlings are large enough, I transplant them into other boxes, and put them into a shady part of the garden, but not under the shade of trees, as there they will draw too much. About the fifteenth of September plant them in the garden where they are to bloom, or if the garden is full of summer-flowering plants, put them in beds in the vegetable garden, to be planted out in the early spring, and give them a light covering of straw or manure to keep sudden changes of the weather away from them."

Hardy perennial herbs may be planted in September and October with excellent results; also in spring. See that they are protected with mulch in winter.

_Perennial herbs suitable for lawn and "planting" effects._

Some of the striking plants that are valuable for lawn planting in the North, chosen chiefly on account of their size, foliage, and habit, are mentioned in the following brief list. They may or may not be suitable for flower-gardens. It is impossible to give to this list any degree of completeness; but the names here printed will be suggestive of the kinds of things that may be used. The asterisk (A) denotes native plants.

Yucca, _Yucca filamentosa._(A)

Funkia, _Funkia,_ of several species.

Peltate saxifrage, _Saxifraga peltata._(A)

Rose mallow, _Hibiscus Moscheutos._(A)

Elecampane, _Inula Helenium_ (Fig. 251).

Wild sunflowers, _Helianthus_(A) of different species, especially _H. orygalis, H. giganteus, H. grosse-serratus, H. strumosus._

[Illustration: Fig. 251. Elecampane. Naturalized in old fields and along roadsides.]

Compass-plants, _Silphium_(A) of several species, especially _S. terebinthinaceum, S. laciniatum, S. perfoliatum._

Sacaline, _Polygonum Sachalinense._

Japanese knotweed, _Polygonum cuspidatum._

Bocconia, _Bocconia cordata._

Wild wormwood, _Artemisia Stelleriana_(A) and others.

Butterfly-weed, _Asclepias tuberosa._(A)

Wild asters, _Aster_(A) of many species, especially _A. Novae-Anglae_ (best), _A. laevis, A. multiflorus, A. spectabilis._

Golden-rods, _Solidago_(A) of various species, especially _S. speciosa, S. nemoralis, S. juncea, S. gigantea._

Loose-strife, _Lythrum Salicaria._

Flags, _Iris_ of many species, some native.

Japanese wind-flower, _Anemone Japonica._

Goat's beard, _Aruncus sylvester (Spira Aruncus_).(A)

Baptisia, _Baptisia tinctoria._(A)

Thermopsis, _Thermopsis mollis._(A)

Wild senna, _Cassia Marilandica._(A)

Wild trefoil, _Desmodium Canadense_(A) and others.

Ribbon grass, _Phalaris arundinacea_(A) var. _picta._

Zebra grass, _Eulalia_ (or _Miscanthus_) species, and varieties.

Wild panic grass, _Panicum virgatum._(A)

Bambusas (and related things) of several sorts.

Ravenna grass, _Erianthus Ravenn_.

Arundo, _Arundo Donax,_ and var. _variegata._

Reed, _Phragmites communis._(A)

This and the remaining plants of the list should be planted in the edges of water or in bogs (the list might be greatly extended).

Wild rice, _Zizania aquatica._(A)

Cat-tail, _Typha angustifolia_(A) and _T. latifolia._(A)

Lizard's-tail, _Saururus cernuus._(A)

Peltandra, _Peltandra undulata._(A)

Orontium, _Orontium aquaticum._(A)

Native calla, _Calla palustris._(A)

_A brief seasonal flower-garden or border list of herbaceous perennials._

To facilitate making a selection of perennial herbs for bloom, the plants in the following list are arranged according to their flowering season, beginning with the earliest. The name of the month indicates when they usually begin to bloom. It should be understood that the blooming season of plants is not a fixed period, but varies more or less with localities and seasons. These dates are applicable to most of the middle and northern states. Natives to North America are marked with an asterisk (A). This list is by Ernest Walker.


Blue Wind-flower, _Anemone blanda._ 6 in. March-May. Sky-blue, star-like flowers. Foliage deeply cut. For border and rockwork.

Bloodroot, _Sanguinaria Canadensis._(A) 6 in. March-April. Pure white. Glaucous foliage. Partial shade. Border or rock-work.


Mountain Rock-cress, _Arabis albida._ 6 in. April-June. Flowers pure white; close heads in profusion. Fragrant. For dry places and rock-work.

Purple Rock-cress, _Aubrietia deltoidea._ 6 in. April-June. Small purple flowers in great profusion.

Daisy, _Bellis perennis,_ 4-6 in. April-July. Flowers white, pink, or red; single or double. The double varieties are the more desirable. Cover the plants in winter with leaves. May be raised from seed, like pansies.

Spring Beauty, _Claytonia Virginica._(A) 6 in. April-May. Clusters of light pink flowers. Partial shade. From six to a dozen should be set together.

Shooting Star, _Dodecatheon Meadia._(A) 1 ft. April-May. Reddish purple flowers, orange-yellow eye, in clusters. Cool, shady location. Plant several in a place.

Dog's-bane, _Doronicum plantagineum_ var. _excelsum._ 20 in. April-June. Large, showy flowers; orange-yellow. Bushy plants.

Liver-leaf, _Hepatica acutiloba_(A) and _triloba._(A) 6 in. April-May. Flowers small but numerous, varying white and pink. Partial shade.

Hardy Candytuft, _Iberis sempervirens._ 10 in. April-May. Small white flowers in clusters; profuse. Large, spreading, evergreen tufts.

Alpine Lamp-flower, _Lychnis alpina._(A) 6 in. April-May. Flowers star-like, in showy heads; pink. For border and rockery.

Early Forget-me-not, _Myosotis dissitiflora._ 6 in. April-June. Small clusters of deep sky-blue flowers. Tufted habit.

Everblooming F., _M. palustris_ var. _semperflorens._ 10 in. Light blue; spreading habit.

Blue-bells, _Mertensia Virginica._(A) 1 ft. April-May. Flowers blue, changing to pink; pendent; tubular; not showy, but beautiful. Rich soil. Partial shade.

Tree Peony, _Ponia Moutan._ (See _May,_ Ponia.)

Moss Pink, _Phlox subulata._(A) 6 in. April-June. Numerous deep pink, small flowers; creeping habit; evergreen. Suitable for dry places as a covering plant.

_Trilliums._(A) Of several species; always attractive and useful in the border (Fig. 252). They are common in rich woods and copses. Dig the tubers in late summer and plant them directly in the border. The large ones will bloom the following spring. The same may be said of the erythronium, or dog's-tooth violet or adder's tongue, and of very many other early wild flowers.


_Ajuga reptans._ 6 in. May-June. Spikes of purple flowers. Grows well in shady places; spreading. A good cover plant.

Madwort, _Alyssum saxatile_ var. _compactum._ 1 ft. May-June. Flowers fragrant, in clusters, clear golden-yellow. Foliage silvery. Well-drained soil. One of the best yellow flowers.

Columbine, _Aquilegia glandulosa_ and others (Fig. 253). 1 ft. May-June. Deep blue sepals; white petals. Aquilegias are old favorites. (See _June._) The wild _A. Canadensis_(A) is desirable.

Lily-of-the-Valley, _Convallaria majalis._(A) 8 in. May-June. Racemes of small white bells; fragrant. Well known. Partial shade. (See Chap. VIII.)

Fumitory, _Corydalis nobilis._ 1 ft. May-June. Large clusters of fine yellow flowers. Bushy, upright habit. Does well in partial shade.

Bleeding-Heart, _Dicentra spectabilis._ 2-1/2 ft. May-June. Well known. Racemes of heart-shaped, deep pink and white flowers. Will bear partial shade.

Crested Iris, _Iris cristata._(A) 6 in. May-June. Flowers blue, fringed with yellow. Leaves sword-shaped.

German Iris, _I. Germanica._ 12-15 in. May-June. Numerous varieties and colors. Large flowers, 3-4 on a stem. Broad, glaucous, sword-shaped leaves.

Peony, _Ponia officinalis._ 2 ft. May-June. This is the well-known herbaceous peony. There are numerous varieties and hybrids.

Large flowers, 4-6 in. across. Crimson, white, pink, yellowish, etc. Suitable for lawn or the border. Fig. 250.

Tree Peony, _P. Moutan._ 4ft. April-May. Numerous named varieties. Flowers as above, excepting yellow. Branched, dense, shrubby habit.

Meadow Sage, _Salvia pratensis._ 2-1/2 ft. May-June, August. Spikes of deep blue flowers. Branching from the ground.


_Achillea Ptarmica, fl. pl._, var. "The Pearl." 1/2 ft. June-August. Small double white flowers, in few-flowered clusters. Rich soil.

Wind-flower, _Anemone Pennsylvanica._(A) 18 in. June-September. White flowers on long stems. Erect habit. Does well in the shade.

St. Bruno's Lily, _Paradisea Liliastrum._ 18 in. June-July. Bell-like, white flowers in handsome spikes.

Golden-spurred Columbine, _Aquilegia chrysantha._(A) 3 ft. June-August. Golden flowers with slender spurs; fragrant.

Rocky Mountain Columbine, _A. coerulea._(A) 1 ft. June-August. Flowers with white petals and deep blue sepals, 2-3 in. in diameter. (See _May._)

Woodruff, _Asperula odorata._ 6 in. June-July. Small white flowers. Herbage fragrant when wilted. Does well in shade; spreading habit. Used for flavoring drinks, scenting and protecting garments.

_Astilbe Japonica_ (incorrectly called Spira). 2 ft. June-July. Small white flowers in a feathery inflorescence. Compact habit.

Poppy Mallow, _Callirrho involucrata._(A) 10 in. June-October. Large crimson flowers, with white centers. Trailing habit. For border and rockery.

Carpathian Harebell, _Campanula Carpatica_ (Fig. 254). 8 in. June-September. Flowers deep blue. Tufted habit. For border or rockery. Good for cutting.

_C. glomerata_ var. _Dahurica._ 2 ft. June-August. Deep purple flowers in terminal clusters. Branching from the ground. Erect habit.

Canterbury Bell, _C. Medium._ An old favorite. It is biennial, but blooms the first season if sown early.

_Corydalis lutea._ 1 ft. June-September. Flowers yellow, in terminal clusters. Loose branching habit. Glaucous foliage.

Scotch Pink, _Dianthus plumarius._ 10 in. June-July. White and pink-ringed flowers on slender stems. Densely tufted habit.

Fringed Pink, _D. superbus._ 18 in. July-August. Fringed flowers. Lilac tint.

Gas Plant, _Dictamnus Fraxinella._ 3 ft. June. Flowers purple, showy, fragrant; in long spikes. Regular habit. Var. _alba._ White.

_Gaillardia aristata._(A) 2 ft. June-October. Showy orange and maroon flowers on long stems. Good for cutting. Hybrid gaillardias offer quite a variety of brilliant colors.

_Heuchera sanguinea._(A) 18 in. June-September. Flowers in open panicles, scarlet, on clustered stems from a tufted mass of pretty foliage.

Japan Iris, _Iris laevigata (I. Kaempferi)._ 2-3 ft. June-July. Large flowers of various colors, in variety. Green, sword-like leaves. Dense tufted habit. Prefers a moist situation.

Blazing Star, _Liatris spicata._(A) 2 ft. June-August. Spikes of fine, small purple flowers. Slender foliage. Unbranched, erect stems. Will grow in the poorest soil.

Iceland Poppy, _Papaver nudicaule._(A) 1 ft. June-October. Bright yellow flowers. A close, dense habit. Erect, naked stems. The varieties Album, white, and Miniatum, deep orange, are also desirable.

Oriental Poppy, _P. orientale._ 2-4 ft. June. Flowers 6-8 in. across; deep scarlet, with a purple spot at the base of each petal. There are other varieties of pink, orange, and crimson shades.

_Pentstemon barbatus_ var. _Torreyi._(A) 3-4 ft. June-September. Crimson flowers in long spikes. Branching from the base. Erect habit.

Perennial Phlox, _Phlox paniculata_(A) and hybrids with _P. maculata._(A) 2-3 ft. June. A great variety of colors in selfs and variegated forms. Flowers borne in large, flat panicles. (Figs. 246, 248.)

_Rudbeckia maxima_(A) 5-6 ft. August. Large flowers; cone-like center and long, drooping, yellow petals.

Dropwort, _Ulmaria Filipendula._ 3 ft. June-July. White flowers in compact clusters. Tufted foliage, dark green and handsomely cut. Erect stems. (Often referred to Spira.)

Adam's Needle, _Yucca filamentosa._(A) 4-5 ft. June-July. Waxen white, pendulous, liliaceous flowers in a great thyrsus. Leaves long, narrow, dark green, with marginal filaments. For the lawn, and for massing in large grounds.


Hollyhock, _Altha rosea._ 5-8 ft. Summer and fall. Flowers white, crimson, and yellow, lavender and purple. Stately plants of spire-like habit; useful for the back of the border, or beds and groups. The newer double varieties have flowers as fine as a camellia. The plant is nearly biennial, but in rich, well-drained soil and with winter protection it becomes perennial. Easily grown from seed, blooming the second year. Seeds may be sown in August in frames and carried over winter in the same place. The first year's bloom is usually the best.

Yellow Chamomile, _Anthemis tinctoria._ 12-38 in. July-November. Flowers bright yellow, 1-2 in. in diameter. Useful for cutting. Dense, bushy habit.

_Delphinium Chinense._ 3 ft. July-September. Variable colors; from deep blue to lavender and white. Fine for the border.

_D. formosum._ 4 ft. July-September. Fine spikes of rich blue flowers. One of the finest blue flowers cultivated.

_Funkia lancifolia._ (See under _August._)

_Helianthus multiflorus_(A) var. _fl. pl._ 4 ft. July-September. Large double flowers, of a fine golden color. Erect habit. An excellent flower.

_Lychnis Viscaria_ var. _flore pleno._ 12-15 in. July-August. Double, deep rose-red flowers in spikes. For groups and masses.

_Monarda didyma._(A) 2 ft. July-October. Showy scarlet flowers in terminal heads.

_Pentstemon grandiflorus.(A) 2_ ft. July-August. Leafy spikes of showy purple flowers.

_P. loevigalus_ var. _Digitalis._(A) 3 ft. July-August. Pure white flowers in spikes, with purple throats.

_Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanula grandiflora)_. 3 ft. July-September. Deep blue, bell-shaped flowers. Dense, fine, erect habit.

_P. Mariesi._ 1 ft. July-September. Flowers larger; deep violet-blue. Heavier foliage.


Day Lily, _Funkia subcordata._ 18 in. August-October. Trumpet, lily-like, pure-white flowers in clusters, borne upon a stalk from the midst of a group of heart-shaped green leaves.

_F. lancifolia_ var. _albo-marginata._ July-August. Lavender flowers. Lance-like leaves margined with white.

Flame Flower, _Kniphofia aloides (Tritoma Uvaria_). 3 ft. August-September. Bright orange-scarlet flowers, in close, dense spikes, at the summit of several scape-like stems. Leaves slender, forming a large tuft. For lawn and borders. Hardy only when covered with litter or straw in winter.

Cardinal Flower, _Lobelia cardinalis._(A) 2-1/4-4 ft. August-September. Flowers intense cardinal-red, of unrivaled brilliancy. Tall spikes. Stems clustered; erect.

Giant Daisy, _Chrysanthemum_ (or _Pyrethrum) uliginosum._ 3-5 ft. July-October. Flowers white, with golden centers. About 2 in. across. A stout, upright, bushy plant. Useful for cutting.

Golden Glow, _Rudbeckia laciniata._(A) 6-7 ft. August-September. Large double golden-yellow flowers in great profusion. Bushy habit. Cut off when done flowering. Leaves appear at the base and a new crop of flowers, on stems about 1 ft. high, appear in October.

Goldenrod, _Solidago rigida._(A) 3-5 ft. August-October. Flowers large for this genus, in close, short racemes in a corymbose-paniculate cluster. Fine, deep yellow. Erect habit. One of the best of the goldenrods.


Japanese Wind-flower, _Anemone Japonica._ 2 ft. August-October. Flowers large, bright red. One of the best autumn flowers.

_A. Japonica_ var. _alba._ Flowers pure white, with yellow centers. Fine for cutting.


_Hardy Chrysanthemums._ The Chinese and Japanese Chrysanthemums, so well known, are hardy in light, well-drained soils, if well protected with litter or leaves during the winter, and in such situations will stand without protection south of Indianapolis. Chrysanthemums are gross feeders, and should have a rich soil.

But there is a race of hardier or border chrysanthemums that is again coming into favor, and it is sure to give much satisfaction to those who desire flowers in latest fall. These chrysanthemums are much like the "artemisias" of our mother's gardens, although improved in size, form, and in range of color.

_One hundred extra-hardy perennial herbs._

The following list of 100 "best hardy perennials" is adapted from a report of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario. These plants are chosen from over 1000 species and varieties that have been on trial at that place. Those considered to be the best twenty-five for Canada are marked by a dagger (D); and those native to North America by an asterisk (A).

_Achillea Ptarmica flore pleno._--Height, 1 foot; in bloom fourth week of June; flowers, small, pure white, double, and borne in clusters; blooming freely throughout the summer. (D)

_Aconitum autumnale._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; September; flowers, bluish purple, borne in loose panicles.

_Aconitum Napellus._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; July; flowers, deep blue, borne on a large terminal spike; desirable for the rear of the border.

_Adonis vernalis._--Height, 6 to 9 inches; first week of May; flowers, large, lemon-yellow, borne singly from the ends of the stems.

_Agrostemma (Lychnis) Coronaria_ var. _atropurpurea._--Height, 1 to 2 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, medium size, bright crimson, borne singly from the sides and ends of the stems; a very showy plant with silvery foliage, and continues to bloom throughout the summer.

_Anemone patens._(A)--Height 6 to 9 inches; fourth week of April; flowers, large, and deep purple.

_Anthemis tinctoria_ var. _Kelwayi._--Height, 1 to 2 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, large, deep yellow, borne singly on long stems; it continues to bloom profusely throughout the summer; is very showy and valuable for cutting. (D)

_Aquilegia Canadensis._(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; third week of May; flowers, medium size, red and yellow.

_Aquilegia chrysantha._(A)--Height, 3 to 4 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, large, bright lemon-yellow, with long slender spurs; much later than other columbines. (D)

_Aquilegia coerulea._(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; fourth week of May; flowers, large, deep blue with white center and long spurs. (D)

_Aquilegia glandulosa._--Height, 1 foot; third week of May; flowers, large, deep blue with white center and short spurs.

_Aquilegia oxysepala._--Height, 1 foot; second week in May; flowers, large, deep purplish blue with blue and yellow centers; a very desirable early species.

_Aquilegia Stuarti._--Height 9 to 12 inches; third week of May; flowers, large, deep blue with white center; one of the best.

_Arabis alpina._--Height, 6 inches; first week in May; flowers, small, pure white, in clusters.

_Arnebia echioides._--Height, 9 inches; third week of May; flowers, yellow, borne in clusters with petals spotted with purple. One of the most charming of early flowering plants.

_Asclepias tuberosa._(A)--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; third week of July. Flowers, bright orange, borne in clusters. Very showy.

_Aster alpinus._(A)--Height, 9 inches; first week of June; flowers, large, bright purple, borne on long stems from the base of the plant; the earliest flowering of all the asters.

_Aster Amellus_ var. _Bessarabicus._--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; July to September; flowers, large, deep purple, singly on long stems; very fine. (D)

_Aster Novae-Anglae_ var. _roseus._(A)--Height, 5 to 7 feet; fourth week of August; flowers, bright pink, borne profusely in large terminal clusters; very showy.

_Boltonia asteroides_(A)--Height, 4 to 5 feet; September; flowers, smaller than the next, pale pink, borne very profusely in large panicles; much later than the next species.

_Boltonia latisquama_(A)--Height, 4 feet; first week of August; flowers, large, white, somewhat resembling asters, and borne very profusely in large panicles.

_Campanula Carpatica._--Height, 6 to 9 inches; first week of July; flowers, medium size, deep blue, borne profusely in loose panicles; continues in bloom throughout the summer. A white variety of this is also good.

_Campanula Grossekii._--Height, 3 feet; first week of July; flowers, large, deep blue, borne on a long spike.

_Campanula persicifolia._--Height, 3 feet; flowers, large, blue, borne in a raceme with long flower stems. There are also white and double varieties which are good.

_Clematis recta._--Height, 4 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, small, pure white, borne profusely in dense clusters. This is a very compact bushy species and desirable for the rear of the border. _Clematis Jackmani_ with large deep purple flowers and _Clematis Vitalba_ with small white flowers, are excellent climbing sorts.

_Convallaria majalis_(A) (Lily-of-the-valley).--Height, 6 to 9 inches; latter part of May.

_Coreopsis delphiniflora._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of July; flowers, large, yellow, with dark centers and borne singly with long stems.

_Coreopsis grandiflora._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, large, deep yellow, borne singly on long stems, blooming profusely throughout the summer.

_Coreopsis lanceolata._(A)--Height, 2 feet; fourth week of June; flowers large though slightly smaller than the last, and borne on long stems, blooming throughout the season.(D)

_Delphinium Cashmerianum._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July; flowers, pale to bright blue, in large open heads.(D)

_Dianthus plumarius flore pleno._--Height, 9 inches; second week of June; flowers, large, white or pink, very sweet scented; and two or three borne on a stem. A variety called Mrs. Simkins is especially desirable, being very double, white and deliciously perfumed, almost equaling a carnation. It blooms the fourth week of June.

_Dicentra spectabilis_ (Bleeding Heart).--Height, 3 feet; second week of May; flowers, heart-shaped, red and white in pendulous racemes.

_Dictamnus albus._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; second week of June; flowers, white with an aromatic fragrance, and borne in large terminal racemes. A well-known variety has purple flowers with darker markings.

_Doronicum Caucasicum._--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers, large, yellow, and borne singly.

_Doronicum plantagineum_ var. _excelsum._--Height, 2 feet; third week of May; flowers, large and deep yellow.(D)

_Epimedium rubrum._--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers, small, bright crimson and white, borne in a loose panicle. A very dainty and beautiful little plant.

_Erigeron speciosus._(A)--Height, 1-1/2 feet; second week of July; flowers, large, violet-blue, with yellow centers, and borne in large clusters on long stems.

_Funkia subcordata (grandiflora)._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; August; flowers, large and white, borne in racemes. The best funkia grown at Ottawa; both leaves and flowers are handsome.

_Gaillardia aristata_ var. _grandiflora._(A)--Height, 1 1/2 feet; third week of June; flowers, large, yellow, with deep orange centers, and borne singly on long stems. The named varieties, Superba and Perfection, are more highly colored and are of great merit. These all continue blooming profusely until late in the autumn.(D)

_Gypsophila paniculata_ (Infant's breath).--Height, 2 feet; second week of July; flowers, small, white, borne profusely in large open panicles.

_Helenium autumnale_(A)--Height, 6 to 7 feet; second week of July; flowers, large, deep yellow, borne in large heads; very ornamental in late summer.

_Helianthus doronicoides._(A)--Height, 6 to 7 feet; second week of August; flowers, large, bright yellow, and borne singly; continues blooming for several weeks.

_Helianthus multiflorus._(A)--Height, 4 feet; flowers, large, double, bright yellow, and borne singly; a very striking late-flowering perennial.

_Heuchera sanguinea_(A)--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; first week of June; flowers, small, bright, scarlet, borne in open panicles; continues blooming throughout the summer.

_Hemerocallis Dumortierii._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; second week of June; flowers, large, orange-yellow, with a brownish tinge on the outside, and three or four on a stem.(D)

_Hemerocallis flava._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; latter part of June; flowers, bright orange-yellow and fragrant.(D)

_Hemerocallis minor._--Height, 1 to 1-1/2 feet; second week of July; flowers, medium size and yellow; blooms later than the two preceding species and has a smaller flower and narrower foliage.

_Hibiscus Moscheutos._(A)--Height, 5 feet; third week of August; flowers, very large, varying in color from white to deep pink. A variety called "Crimson Eye" is very good. This plant makes a fine show in late summer.

_Hypericum Ascyron_ (or _pyramidatum_).(A)--Height, 3 feet; fourth week of July; flowers, large, yellow, and borne singly.

_Iberis sempervirens._--Height, 6 to 12 inches; third week of May; flowers, pure white, fragrant, and borne in dense flat clusters.(D)

_Iris Chamoeiris._--Height, 6 inches; fourth week of May; flowers, bright yellow with brown markings.

_Iris flavescens._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; first week of June; flowers, lemon-yellow with brown markings.

_Iris Florentina._--Height, 2 feet; first week of June; flowers, very large, pale blue or lavender, sweet scented.(D)

_Iris Germanica._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of June; flowers, very large, of elegant form; color, deep lilac and bright purple, sweet scented. There is a large number of choice varieties of this iris.(D)

_Iris loevigata (Koempferi)._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; first week of July; flowers, purple and modified colors, very large and distinct in color and shape.(D)

_Iris pumila._--Height, 4 to 6 inches; third week of May; flowers, deep purple. There are several varieties.

_Iris Sibirica._--Height, 3 to 4 feet; fourth week of May; flowers, deep blue, borne on long stems in clusters of two or three. This species has many varieties.

_Iris variegata._--Height, 1 to 1 1/2 feet; first week of June; flowers, yellow and brown, veined with various shades of brown.

_Lilium auratum._--Height, 3 to 5 feet; July; flowers, very large, white, with a yellow central band on each petal, and thickly spotted with purple and red. The most showy of all lilies and a splendid flower. This has proved hardy at the Central Experimental Farm, although it has been reported tender in some localities.(D)

_Lilium Canadense._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; latter part of May; flowers, yellow to pale red with reddish spots, pendulous.

_Lilium elegans._--Height, 6 inches; first week of July; flowers, pale red; several varieties are better than the type.

_Lilium speciosum._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; July; flowers, large, white, tinged and spotted with deep pink and red. Hardier than _Lilium_ _auratum_ and almost as fine. There are several fine varieties.(D)

_Lilium superbum._(A)--Height, 4 to 6 feet; first week of July; flowers, very numerous, orange red, thickly spotted with dark brown. An admirable lily for the rear of the border. (D)

_Lilium tenuifolium._--Height, 1 1/2 to 2 feet; third week of June; flowers, pendulous and bright scarlet. One of the most graceful of all lilies.

_Lilium tigrinum._--Height, 2 to 4 feet; flowers, large, deep orange, spotted thickly with purplish black.

_Linum perenne._--Height, 1 1/2 feet; first week of June; flowers, large deep blue, borne in loose panicles, continuing throughout the summer.

_Lobelia cardinalis._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; August; flowers, bright scarlet, borne in terminal racemes; very showy.

_Lychnis Chalcedonica flore pleno._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of July; flowers, bright crimson, double, and borne in terminal racemes.

_Lysimachia clethroides._--Height, 3 feet; fourth week of July; flowers, white, borne in long spikes. A very striking late-flowering perennial.

_Myosotis alpestris._--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers, small, bright blue with a yellowish eye. A very profuse bloomer.

_OEnothera Missouriensis._(A)--Height, 1 foot; fourth week of June; flowers, very large, rich yellow, and borne singly, throughout the summer.

_Poeonia officinalis._--Height, 2 to 4 feet; early part of July. The double-flowered varieties are the best, and can be obtained in several colors and shades, (D)

_Papaver nudicaule_(A)--Height, 1 foot; second week of May; flowers, medium size, orange, white, or yellow, almost continuously until late autumn. (D)

_Papaver orientale._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of June; flowers, very large, scarlet, and variously marked, according to variety, there being many forms.

_Pentstemon barbatus_ var. _Torreyi._(A)--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of July; flowers, deep red, borne in long spikes, very ornamental.

_Phlox amoena._(A)--Height, 6 inches; second week of May; flowers, medium size, bright pink, in compact clusters.

_Phlox decussata_(A) (the garden perennial hybrids).--Height, 1 to 3 feet; third week of July; flowers, of many beautiful shades and colors, are found in the large number of named varieties of this phlox, which continues to bloom until late in the autumn. (D)

_Phlox reptans._(A)--Height, 4 inches; fourth week of May; flowers, medium size, purple, and borne in small clusters.

_Phlox subulata_(A) _(setacea)_.--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers, medium size, deep pink, and borne in small clusters.

_Platycodon grandiflorum._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; second week of July; flowers, very large, deep blue, borne singly or in twos.(D)

_Platycodon grandiflorum_ var. _album._--A white-flowered variety of the above and makes a fine contrast to it when they are grown together. It blooms a few days earlier than the species.

_Platycodon Mariesii._--Height, 1 foot; second week of July; flowers, large and deep blue.

_Polemonium coeruleum._(A)--Height, 2 feet; second week of June; flowers, deep blue, borne in terminal spikes.

_Polemonium reptans._(A)--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers, medium in size, blue, and borne profusely in loose clusters.

_Polemonium Richardsoni._(A)--Height, 6 inches; third week of May; flowers, medium in size, blue, borne profusely in pendulous panicles.

_Potentilla hybrida_ var. _versicolor._--Height, 1 foot; fourth week of June; flowers, large, deep orange and yellow, semi-double.

_Primula cortusoides._--Height, 9 inches; third week of May; flowers, small, deep rose, in compact heads.

_Pyrethrum_ (or _Chrysanthemum_) _uliginosum._--Height, 4 feet; September; flowers, large, white with yellow centers, and borne singly on long stems.

_Rudbeckia laciniata_(A) (Golden Glow).--Height, 5 to 6 feet; August; flowers, large, lemon-yellow, double, and borne on long stems. One of the best of lately introduced perennials. (D)

_Rudbeckia maxima._(A)--Height, 5 to 6 feet; July and August; flowers, large, with a long cone-shaped center and bright yellow rays, and borne singly. The whole plant is very striking.

_Scabiosa Caucascia._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July; flowers, large, light blue, and borne singly on long stems, very freely throughout remainder of the summer.

_Solidago Canadensis_(A) (Golden-rod).--Height, 3 to 5 feet; first week of August; flowers, small, golden yellow, and borne in dense panicles.

_Spira_ (properly _Aruncus_)_ astilboides._--Height, 2 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, small, white, very numerous, and borne in many branched panicles. Both foliage and flowers are ornamental.

_Spira_ (or _Ulmaria_) _Filipendula._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; third week of June; flowers, pure white, borne profusely in loose panicles. The foliage of this species is also very good. There is a double flowered variety which is very effective. (D)

_Spira (Ulmaria) purpurea_ var. _elegans._--Height, 2 to 3 feet; first week of July; flowers, whitish with crimson anthers, borne very profusely in panicles.

_Spira Ulmaria (Ulmaria pentapetala_).--Height, 3 to 4 feet; second week of July; flowers, very numerous, dull white, borne in large compound heads, having a soft, feathery appearance.

_Spira venusta (Ulmaria rubra_ var. _venusta_).--Height, 4 feet; second week of July; flowers, small, bright pink, borne profusely in large panicles. (D)

_Statice latifolia._--Height, 1-1/2 feet; first week of July; flowers, small, blue, borne very profusely in loose panicles. Very effective in the border.

_Thalictrum aquilegifolium._--Height, 4 to 5 feet; fourth week of June; flowers, small, white to purplish, very numerous and borne in large panicles.

_Trollius Europoeus._--Height, 1-1/2 to 2 feet; fourth week of May; flowers, large, bright yellow, continuing a long time.


_(See the particular culture of the different kinds in Chapter VIII; and instructions for forcing on p. 345.)_

It is customary to write of bulbs and tubers together, because the tops and flowers of all the bulbous and tuberous plants spring from large reservoirs of stored food, giving rise to similar methods of culture and of storage.

Structurally, the bulb is very different from the tuber, however. A bulb is practically a large dormant bud, the scales representing the leaves, and the embryo stem lying in the center. Bulbs are condensed plants in storage. The tuber, on the other hand, is a solid body, with buds arising from it. Some tubers represent thickened stems, as the Irish potato, and some thickened roots, as probably the sweet-potato, and some both stem and root, as the turnip, parsnip, and beet. Some tubers are very bulb-like in appearance, as the corms of crocus and gladiolus.

Using the word "bulb" in the gardener's sense to include all these plants as a cultural group, we may throw them into two classes: the hardy kinds, to be planted in fall; and the tender kinds, to be planted in spring.

_Fall-planted bulbs._

The fall-planted bulbs are of two groups: the "Holland bulbs" or early spring bloomers, as crocus, tulip (Fig. 255), hyacinth (Fig. 262), narcissus (Fig. 260), squill (Fig. 256), snowdrop; the summer bloomers, as lilies (Figs. 258, 259). The treatments of the two groups are so similar that they may be discussed together.

All these bulbs may be planted as soon as they are mature; but in practice they are kept till late September or October before they are put into the ground, as nothing is gained by earlier planting, and, moreover, the ground is usually not ready to receive them until some other crop is removed.

These bulbs are planted in the fall (1) because they keep better in the ground than when stored; (2) because they will take root in fall and winter and be ready for the first warmth of spring; (3) and because it is usually impossible to get on the ground early enough in spring to plant them with much hope of success for that season.

The bulbs lie dormant until spring, so far as outward appearances go; they are mulched to insure that they will not start in warm weather of fall or winter, and to protect the ground from heaving.

[Illustration: Fig. 257. A purple-flowered Amaryllis.--_Lycoris squamigera,_ but known as _Amaryllis Hallii._]

To secure good bulbs and of the desired varieties, the order should be placed in spring or early summer. For flower-garden effects, the large and mature bulbs should be secured; for colonizing in shrubbery or on the lawn, the smaller sizes may be sufficient. Insist that your bulbs shall be first class, for there is wide difference in the quality; even with the best of treatment, good results cannot be secured from poor bulbs.

[Illustration: Fig. 258. The Japanese gold-banded lily.--_Lilium auratum_]

It is not generally known that there are autumn-flowering bulbs. Several species of crocus bloom in the fall, _C. sativus_ (the saffron crocus) and _C. speciosus_ being the ones generally recommended. The colchicums are excellent autumn-blooming bulbs and should be more generally planted. _C. autumnale,_ rosy purple, is the usual species. These autumn-blooming bulbs are planted in August or early September and treated in general the same as other similar bulbs. The colchicums usually remain in the ground several years in good condition.

All kinds of bulbs are partial to a deep, rich, water-free soil. This is no small part of their successful culture. The spot should be well drained, either naturally or artificially. In flattish and rather moist lands the beds may be made above the surface, some 18 inches high, and bordered with grass. A layer of rough stones a foot deep is sometimes used in the bottom of ordinary beds for drainage, and with good results, when other methods are not convenient, and when there is fear that the bed may become too wet. If the place is likely to be rather wet, place a large handful of sand where the bulb is to go and set the bulb on it. This will keep the water from standing around the bulb. Very good results may be had in heavy soil by this method.

[Illustration: Fig. 259. One of the common wild lilies.--_Lilium Philadelphicum._]

The soil for bulbs should be well enriched with old manure. Fresh manure should never be allowed close about the bulb. The addition of leafmold and a little sand also improves the texture of heavy soils. For lilies the leafmold may be omitted. Let the spading be at least a foot deep. Eighteen inches will be none too deep for lilies. To make a bulb bed, throw out the top earth to the depth of 6 inches. Put into the bottom of the bed about 2 inches of well-rotted manure and spade it into the soil. Throw back half of the top soil, level it off nicely, set the bulbs firmly on this bed, and then cover them with the remainder of the earth; in this way one will have the bulbs from 3 to 4 inches below the surface, and they will all be of uniform depth and will give uniform results if the bulbs themselves are well graded. The "design" bed may be worked out easily in this way, for all the bulbs are fully exposed after they are placed, and they are all covered at once.

Of course, it is not necessary that the home gardener go to the trouble of removing the earth and replacing it if he merely wants good blooms; but if he wants a good bed as a whole, or a mass effect, he should take this pains. In the shrubberies and on the lawn he may "stick them in" here and there, seeing that the top of the bulb is 3 to 6 inches beneath the surface, the depth depending on the size of the bulb (the bigger and stronger the bulb, the deeper it may go) and on the nature of the soil (they may go deeper in sand than in hard clay).

[Illustration: Fig. 260. Common species of narcissus.--_a a. Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus_ or daffodil; _b._ Jonquil; _c. N. Poeticus._]

As the time of severe winter freezing approaches, the bed should receive a mulch of leaves, manure or litter, to the depth of 4 inches or more, according to the latitude and the kind of material. If leaves are used, 3 inches will be enough, because the leaves lie close together and may smother out the frost that is in the ground and let the bulbs start. It will be well to let the mulch extend 1 foot or more beyond the margins of the bed. When cold weather is past, half of the mulch should be removed. The remainder may be left on till there is no longer danger of frost. On removing the last of the mulch, lightly work over the surface among the bulbs with a thrust-hoe.

If the weather happens to be very bright during the blooming season, the duration of the flowers may be prolonged by light shading--as with muslin, or slats placed above the beds. If planted where they have partial shade from surrounding trees or shrubbery, the beds will not need attention of this kind.

Lilies may remain undisturbed for years. Crocuses and tulips may stand two years, but hyacinths should be taken up each year and replanted; tulips also will be better for the same treatment. Narcissus may remain for some years, or until they show signs of running out.

Bulbs that are to be taken up should be left in the ground till the foliage turns yellow, or dies down naturally. This gives the bulbs a chance to ripen. Cutting off the foliage and digging too early is a not uncommon and serious mistake. Bulbs that have been planted in places that are wanted for summer bedding plants may be dug with the foliage on and heeled-in under a tree, or along a fence, to stand till ripened. The plant should be injured as little as possible, as the foliage of this year makes the flowers of the next. When the foliage has turned yellow or died down, the bulbs--after cleaning, and curing them for a few hours in the sun--may be stored in the cellar or other cool, dry place, to await fall planting. Bulbs that are lifted prematurely in this way should be planted permanently in the borders, for they will not make good flower-garden subjects the following year. In fact, it is usually best to buy fresh, strong bulbs each year of tulips, hyacinths, and crocuses if the best results are desired, using the old bulbs for shrubberies and mixed borders.

Crocuses and squills are often planted in the lawn. It is not to be expected that they will last more than two to three years, however, even if care is taken not to cut the tops closely when the lawn is cut. The narcissus (including daffodils and jonquils) will remain in good condition for years in grassy parts of the place, if the tops are allowed to mature.

_List of outdoor fall-planted bulbs for the North._

Crocus. Hyacinth. Tulip. Narcissus (including daffodil and jonquil). Scilla, or squill. Snowdrop _(Galanthus)._ Snowflake _(Leucoium)._ Chionodoxa. Hardy alliums. Bulbocodium. Camassia. Lily-of-the-valley. Winter aconite (_Eranthis hycmalis_). Dog-tooth violets (_Erythronium_). Crown imperial (_Fritillaria Imperialis_). Fritillary (_Fritillaria Mekagris_). Trilliums. Lilies.

Peonies, tuberous anemones, tuberous buttercups, iris, bleeding heart, and the like, may be planted in autumn and are often classed with fall-planted bulbs.

_Winter bulbs_ (p. 345).

Some of these bulbs may be made to bloom in the greenhouse, window-garden, or living room in winter. Hyacinths are particularly useful for this purpose, because the bloom is less affected by cloudy weather than that of tulips and crocuses. Some kinds of narcissus also "force" well, particularly the daffodil; and the Paper-white and "Chinese sacred lily" are practically the only common bulbs from which the home gardener may expect good bloom before Christmas. The method of handling bulbs for winter bloom is described under Window-gardening (on p. 345).

_Summer bulbs._

There is nothing special to be said of the culture of the so-called summer-blooming and spring-planted bulbs, as a class. They are tender, and are therefore planted after cold weather is past. For early bloom, they may be started indoors. Of course, any list of spring-planted bulbs is relative to the climate, for what may be planted in spring in New York perhaps may be planted in the fall in Georgia.

The common "summer bulbs" are:--

Gladiolus Tuberose Dahlia Canna Arum Calla Calochortus Alstremeria Amaryllis Colocasia


(Exclusive of coniferous evergreens and climbing plants.)

The common hardy shrubs or bushes may be planted in fall or spring. In the northernmost parts of the country and in Canada spring planting is usually safer, although on well-drained ground and when thoroughly mulched the plants may even there do well if planted as soon as the leaves drop in fall. If the shrubs are purchased in spring, they are likely to have come from "cellared stock"; that is, the nurserymen dig much of their stock in fall and store it in cellars built for the purpose. While stock that is properly cellared is perfectly reliable, that which has been allowed to get too dry or which has been otherwise improperly handled comes on very slowly in the spring, makes a poor growth the first year, and much of it may die.

In the planting of any kind of trees or shrubs, it is well to remember that nursery-grown specimens generally transplant more readily and thrive better than trees taken from the wild; and this is particularly true if the stock was transplanted in the nursery. Trees that transplant with difficulty, as the papaw or asimina, and some nut trees, may be prepared for removal by cutting some of their roots--and especially the tap-root, if they have such--a year or two in advance.

[Illustration XIII. The pageant of summer. Gardens of C. W. Dowdeswell, England, from a painting by Miss Parsons. For permission to reproduce the above picture we are indebted to the kindness of Messrs. Sutton & Sons, Seed Merchants, Reading, England, the owners of the copyright, who published it in their Amateur's Guide in Horticulture for 1909.]

It is ordinarily best to plow or spade the entire area in which the shrubs are to be set. For a year or two the ground should be tilled between the shrubs, either by horse tools or by hoes and rakes. If the place looks bare, seeds of quick-growing flowers may be scattered about the edges of the mass, or herbaceous perennials may be used.

The larger shrubs, as lilacs and syringas, may be set about 4 feet apart; but the smaller ones should be set about 2 feet apart if it is desired to secure an immediate effect. If after a few years the mass becomes too crowded, some of the specimens may be removed (p. 76).

Throw the shrubs into an irregular plantation, not in rows, and make the inner edge of the mass more or less undulating and broken.

It is a good practice to mulch the plantation each fall with light manure, leaf mold, or other material. Even though the shrubs are perfectly hardy, this mulch greatly improves the land and promotes growth. After the shrub borders have become two or three years old, the drifting leaves of fall will be caught therein and will be held as a mulch (p. 82).

When the shrubs are first planted, they are headed back one half or more (Fig. 45); but after they are established they are not to be sheared, but allowed to take their own way, and after a few years the outermost ones will droop and meet the green-sward (pp. 25, 26).

Many rapid-growing trees may be utilized as shrubs by cutting them off near the ground every year, or every other year, and allowing young shoots to grow. Basswood, black ash, some of the maples, tulip tree, mulberry, ailanthus, paulownia, magnolias, _Acer campestre,_ and others may be treated in this way (Fig. 50).

Nearly all shrubs bloom in spring or early summer. If kinds blooming late in summer or in fall are desired, they maybe looked for in baccharis, caryopteris, cephalanthus, clethra, hamamelis, hibiscus, hydrangea, hypericum, lespedeza, rhus _(R. Cotinus), Sambucus Canadensis_ in midsummer, tamarisk.

Plants that bloom in very early spring (not mentioning such as birches, alders, and hazels) may be found in amelanchier, cydonia, daphne, dirca, forsythia, cercis (in tree list), benzoin, lonicera _(L. fragrantissima_), salix (_S. discolor_ and other pussy willows), shepherdia.

Shrubs bearing conspicuous berries, pods, and the like, that persist in fall or winter may be found in the genera berberis (particularly _B. Thunbergii_), colutea, corylus, cratgus, euonymus, ilex, physocarpus, ostrya, ptelea, pyracantha (Plate XIX) pyrus, rhodotypos, rosa (_R. rugosa_), staphylea, symphoricarpus, viburnum, xanthoceras.

_List of shrubbery plants for the North._

The following list of shrubs (of course not complete) comprises a selection with particular reference to southern Michigan and central New York, where the mercury sometimes falls to fifteen degrees below zero. Application is also made to Canada by designating species that have been found to be hardy at Ottawa.

The list is arranged alphabetically by the names of the genera.

The asterisk (A) denotes that the plant is native to North America.

The double dagger (DD) indicates species that are recommended by the Central Experimental Farms, Ottawa, Ontario.

It is often difficult to determine whether a group should be listed among shrubs or trees. Sometimes the plant is not quite a tree and is yet something more than a shrub or bush; sometimes the plant may be distinctly a tree in its southern range and a shrub in its northern range; sometimes the same genus or group contains both shrubs and trees. In the following genera there are doubtful cases: sculus, alnus, amelanchier, betula, caragana, castanea, cornus (_C. florida_), cratgus, elagnus, prunus, robinia.

Dwarf buckeye, _sculus parviflora (Pavia macrostachya_).(A) Attractive in habit, foliage, and flower; produces a large foliage mass.

Alder. Several bushy species of alder are good lawn or border subjects, particularly in wet places or along streams, as _A. viridis,(A) A. rugosa,(A) A. incana,_(A) and others.

June-berry, _Amelanchier Canadensis_(A) and others. Flowers profusely in spring before the leaves appear; some of them become small trees.

Azalea, _Azalea viscosa_(A) and _A. nudiflora._(A) Require partial shade, and a woodsy soil.

Japanese azalea, _A. mollis_ (or _A. Sinensis_). Showy red and yellow or orange flowers; hardy north.

Groundsel tree, "white myrtle," _Baccharis halimifolia._(A) Native on the Atlantic seashore, but grows well when planted inland; valuable for its white fluffy "bloom" (pappus) in latest fall; 4-10 ft.

Spice-bush, _Benzoin odoriferum (Lindera Benzoin_(A)). Very early-blooming bush of wet places, the yellow, clustered, small flowers preceding the leaves; 6--10 ft.

Barberry, _Berberis vulgaris._ Common barberry; 4-6 ft. The purple-leaved form (var. _purpurea_(DD)) is popular.

Thunberg's barberry, _B. Thunbergii._(DD) One of the best of lawn and border shrubs, with compact and attractive habit, deep red autumn foliage and bright scarlet berries in profusion in fall and winter; excellent for low hedges; 2-4 ft.

Mahonia, _Berberis Aquifolium._(A)(DD) Evergreen; needs some protection in exposed places; 1-3 ft.

Dwarf birch, _Betula pumila._(A) Desirable for low places; 3-10 ft.

Box, _Buxus sempervirens._ An evergreen shrub, useful for hedges and edgings in cities; several varieties, some of them very dwarf. See page 220.

Carolina allspice, sweet-scented shrub, _Calycanthus floridus._(A) Dull purple, very fragrant flowers; 3-8 ft.

Siberian pea-tree, _Caragana arborescens._(DD) Flowers pea-like, yellow, in May; very hardy; 10-15 feet.

Small pea-tree, _C. pygmoea._ Very small, 1-3 ft, but sometimes grafted on _C. arborescens._

Shrubby pea-tree, _C. frutescens._(DD) Flowers larger than those of _C. arborescens;_ 3--10 ft.

Large-flowered pea-tree, _C. grandiflora._(DD) Larger-flowered than the last, which it resembles; 4 ft.

Blue spirea, _Caryopteris Mastacanthus._ Flowers bright blue, in late summer and fall; 2-4 ft., but is likely to die to ground in winter.

Chinquapin or dwarf chestnut, _Castanea pumila._(A) Becomes a small tree, but usually bushy.

Ceanothus, _Ceanothus Americanus._(A) A very small native shrub, desirable for dry places under trees; 2-3 ft. There are many good European garden forms of ceanothus, but not hardy in the northern states.

Button-bush, _Cephalanthus occidentalis._(A) Blossoms in July and August; desirable for water-courses and other low places; 4-10 ft.

Fringe tree, _Chionanthus Virginica._(A) Shrub as large as lilac, or becoming tree-like, with fringe-like white flowers in spring.

White alder, _Clethra alnifolia._(A) A very fine, hardy shrub, producing very fragrant flowers in July and August; should be better known; 4-10 ft.

Bladder senna, _Colutea arborescens._ Pea-like yellowish flowers in June, and big inflated pods; 8-12 ft.

European osier, _Cornus alba_ (known also as _C. Sibirica_ and _C. Tatarica_). Branches deep red; 4-8 ft.; the variegated form (DD) has leaves edged white.

Bailey's osier, _Cornus Baileyi._(A) Probably the finest of the native osiers for color of twigs and foliage; 5-8 ft.

Red-twigged osier, _Cornus stolonifera._(A) The red twigs are very showy in winter; 5 to 8 ft.; some bushes are brighter in color than others.

Flowering dogwood, _C. florida._(A) Very showy tree or big shrub, desirable for borders of groups and belts. A red-flowered variety is on the market.

Cornelian Cherry, _Cornus Mas._ Becoming a small tree, 15-20 ft.; flowers numerous in bunches, yellow, before the leaves; fruit, cherry-like, edible, red.

Hazel or filbert, _Corylus maxima_ var. _purpurea._ A well-known purple-leaved shrub, usually catalogued as _C. Avellana purpurea._ The eastern American species (_C. Americana_(A) and _C. rostrata_(A)) are also interesting.

Cotoneaster. Several species of cotoneaster are suitable for cultivation in the middle and southern latitudes. They are allied to cratgus. Some are evergreen. Some kinds bear handsome persistent fruits.

Wild thorns, _Cratoegus punctata,_(A) _C. coccinea,_(A)(DD) _C. Crus-galli,_(A)(DD) and others. The native thorn apples or hawthorns, of numerous species, are amongst our best large shrubs for planting and should be much better known; 6-20 ft.

Japanese quince, _Cydonia_ (or _Pyrus_) _Japonica._ An old favorite blooming in earliest spring, in advance of the leaves; not hardy at Lansing, Mich.; 4-5 ft.

Maule's Japanese quince, _C. Maulei._(DD) Bright red; fruit handsome; hardier than _C. Japonica;_ 1-3 ft.

Daphne, _Daphne Mezereum._ Produces rose-purple or white flowers in abundance in earliest spring before the leaves appear. Should be planted on the edges of groups; leaves deciduous; 1-4 ft.

Garland flower, _D. Cneorum._(DD) Pink flowers in very early spring and again in autumn; leaves evergreen; 1-1/2 ft.

Deutzia, _Deutzia scabra_ (or _crenata_) and varieties. Standard shrubs; the variety "Pride of Rochester," with pinkish flowers, is perhaps the best form for the North; 4-6 ft. Of this and the next there are forms with ornamental foliage.

Small deutzia, _D. gracilis._ Very close little bush, with pure white flowers; 2-3 ft.

Lemoine's deutzia, _D. Lemoinei._ A hybrid, very desirable; 1-3 ft.

Weigela, _Diervilla Japonica_ and other species. Free bloomers, very fine, in many colors, 4-6 ft.; the forms known as _Candida,(DD) rosea,_(DD) _Sieboldii variegata,_(DD) are hardy and good.

Leatherwood, _Dirca palustris._(A) If well grown, the leatherwood makes a very neat plant; blossoms appear before the leaves, but not showy; 4-6 ft.

Russian olive, oleaster, _Eloeagnus angustifolia._(DD) Foliage silvery white; very hardy; becoming a small tree, 15-20 ft.

Wolf-willow, _E. argentea._(A)(DD) Large and silvery leaves; suckers badly; 8-12 ft.

Goumi, _E. longipes_ (sometimes called _E. edulis_). Attractive spreading bush, with handsome edible cranberry-like berries; 5-6 ft.

Burning-bush, _Euonymus atropurpureus._(A) Very attractive in fruit; 8-12 ft., or even becoming tree-like.

Several other species are in cultivation, some of them evergreen. In the North, success may be expected with _E. Europoeus_ (sometimes a small tree), _E. alatus, E. Bungeanus, E. latifolius,_ and perhaps others.

Exochorda, _Exochorda grandiflora._ A large and very showy shrub, producing a profusion of apple-like white flowers in early spring; 6-12 ft; allied to the spireas.

Forsythia, _Forsythia viridissima._ Blossoms yellow, appearing before the leaves; requires protection in many places North; 6-10 ft.

Drooping forsythia, _F. suspensa._ Makes an attractive mass on a bank or border; 6-12 ft.

Dyer's weed, _Genista tinctoria._(DD)

Yellow pea-like flowers in June; 1-3 ft.

Silver-bell tree, _Halesia tetraptera._(A)

Bell-shaped white flowers in May; 8-10 ft.

Witch hazel, _Hamamelis Virginiana._(A)

Blossoms in October and November; unique and desirable if well grown; 8-12 ft.

Althea, Rose of Sharon, _Hibiscus Syriacus_ (_Althoea frutex_).

In many forms, purple, red, and white, and perhaps the best of late summer-blooming shrubs; 8-12 ft.

Hydrangea, _Hydrangea paniculata,_ var. _grandiflora._(DD)

One of the best and most showy small flowering shrubs; 4-10 ft.

Downy hydrangea, _H. radiata._(A)

Attractive in both foliage and flower.

Oak-leaved hydrangea, _H. quercifolia._(A)

This is especially valuable for its luxuriant foliage; even if killed to the ground in winter, it is still worth cultivating for its strong shoots.

The greenhouse hydrangea (_H. hortensis_ in many forms) may be used as an outdoor subject in the South.

St. John's wort, _Hypericum Kalmianum,(A)(DD) H. prolificum,_(A) and _H. Moserianum._

Small undershrubs, producing bright yellow flowers in profusion in July and August; 2-4 ft.

Winter-berry, _Ilex verticillata._(A)(DD)

Produces showy red berries, that persist through the winter; should be massed in rather low ground; flowers imperfect; 6-8 ft.

The evergreen hollies are not suitable for cultivation in the North; but in the warmer latitudes, the American holly (_Ilex opaca_), English holly (_I. Aquifolium_), and Japanese holly (_I. crenata_) may be grown. There are several native species.

Mountain laurel, _Kalmia latifolia._(A)

One of the best shrubs in cultivation, evergreen, 5-10 ft., or even becoming a small tree south; usually profits by partial shade; thrives in a peaty or loamy rather loose soil, and said to be averse to limestone and clay; extensively transferred from the wild for landscape effects in large private places; should thrive as far north as it grows wild.

Kerria, corchorus, _Kerria Japonica._ A bramble-like shrub, producing attractive yellow single or double flowers from July until September; twigs very green in winter. There is a variegated-leaved form. Good for banks and borders; 2-3 ft.

Sand myrtle, _Leiophyllum buxifolium._(A) Evergreen, more or less procumbent; 2-3 ft.

Lespedeza, _Lespedeza bicolor._(DD) Reddish or purple small flowers in late summer and fall; 4-8 ft.

Lespedeza, _L. Sieboldii_ (_Desmodium penduliflorum_).(DD) Rose-purple large flowers in fall; killed to the ground in winter, but it blooms the following year; 4-5 ft.

Lespedeza, _L. Japonica_ (_Desmodium Japonicum_). Flowers white, later than those of _L. Sieboldii;_ springs up from the root.

Privet, _Ligustrum vulgare, L. ovalifolium_ (_L. Californicum_), and _L. Amurense._(DD) Much used for low hedges and borders; 4-12 ft.; several other species.

Tartarian honeysuckle, _Lonicera Tatarica._(DD) One of the most chaste and comely of shrubs; 6-10 ft.; pink-flowered; several varieties.

Regel's honeysuckle, _L. spinosa_ (_L. Alberti_).(DD) Blooms a little later than above, pink; 2-4 ft.

Fragrant honeysuckle, _L. fragrantissima._ Flowers exceedingly fragrant, preceding leaves; 2-6 ft.; one of the earliest things to bloom in spring. There are other upright honeysuckles, all interesting.

Mock-orange (Syringa incorrectly), _Philadelphus coronarius._(DD) In many forms and much prized; 6-12 ft. Other species are in cultivation, but the garden nomenclature is confused. The forms known as _P. speciosus, P. grandiflorus,_ and var. _speciosissimus_(DD) are good; also the species _P. pubescens,_(A) _P. Gordonianus,_(A) and _P. microphyllus,_(A) the last being dwarf, with small white very fragrant flowers.

Nine-bark, _Physocarpus opulifolius_ (_Spira opulifolia_).(A) A good vigorous hardy bush, with clusters of interesting pods following the flowers; the var. _aurea_ (DD) is one of the best yellow-leaved shrubs; 6-10 ft.

Andromeda, _Pieris floribunda._(A)

A small ericaceous evergreen; should have some protection from the winter sun; for this purpose, it may be planted on the north side of a clump of trees; 2-6ft.

Shrubby cinquefoil, _Potentilla fruticosa._(A)(DD)

Foliage ashy; flowers yellow, in June; 2-4 ft.

Sand cherry, _Prunus pumila_(A) and _P. Besseyi._(A)

The sand cherry of sandy shores grows 5-8 ft.; the western sand cherry (_P. Besseyi_) is more spreading and is grown for its fruit. The European dwarf cherry (_P. fruticosa_) is 2-4 ft., with white flowers in umbels.

Flowering almond, _Prunus Japonica._

In its double-flowered form, familiar for its early bloom; 3-5 ft; often grafted on other stocks, which are liable to sprout and become troublesome.

Hop-tree, _Ptelea trifoliata._(A)

Very interesting when bearing its roundish winged fruits; 8-10 ft., but becoming larger and tree-like.

Buckthorn, _Rhamnus cathartica._

Much used for hedges; 8-12 ft.

Alpine buckthorn, _R. alpina._

Foliage attractive; 5-6 ft.

Rhododendron, _Rhododendron Catawbiense_(A) and garden varieties.

Hardy in well-adapted locations, 3-8 ft., and higher in its native regions.

Great laurel, _R. maximum_(A)

A fine species for mass planting, native as far north as southern Canada. Extensively transplanted from the wild.

White kerria, _Rhodotypos kerrioides._

White flowers in May and blackish fruit; 3-5 ft.

Smoke-tree (Fringe-tree erroneously), _Rhus Cotinus._

One of the best shrubs for massing; two colors are grown; the billowy "bloom," holding late in the season, is composed of flower stems rather than flowers; size of large lilac bushes.

Dwarf sumac, _R. copallina._(A)

Attractive in foliage, and especially conspicuous in autumn from the brilliant red of its leaves; 3-5 ft., sometimes much taller.

Sumac, smooth and hairy, _R. glabra_(A) and _R. typhina._(A)

Useful for the borders of large groups and belts. They may be cut down every year and allowed to sprout (as in Fig. 50). The young tops are handsomest. _R. glabra_ is the finer species for this purpose. They usually grow 10-15 ft. tall.

Osbeck's sumac, _R. semialata_ var. _Osbeckii._

Strong bush, 10-20 ft., with leaf-rachis strongly winged, the foliage pinnately compound.

Flowering, or fragrant currant, _Ribes aureum._(A)(DD)

Well known and popular, for its sweet-scented yellow flowers in May; 5-8 ft.

Red-flowering currant, _R. sanguineum._(A)

Flowers red and attractive; 5-6 ft. _R. Gordonianum,_ recommendable, is a hybrid between _R. sanguineum_ and _R. aureum._

Rose acacia, _Robinia hispida._(A)(DD)

Very showy in bloom; 8-10ft.

Roses, _Rosa,_ various species.

Hardy roses are not always desirable for the lawn. For general lawn purposes the older sorts, single or semi-double, and which do not require high culture, are to be preferred. It is not intended to include here the common garden roses; see Chapter VIII for these. It is much to be desired that the wild roses receive more attention from planters. Attention has been too exclusively taken by the highly improved garden roses.

Japanese rose, _Rosa rugosa._(DD)

Most excellent for lawn planting, as the foliage is thick and not attacked by insects (Fig. 263); white and pink flowered forms; 4-6 ft.

Wild swamp rose, _R. Carolina._(A) 5-8 ft.

Wild dwarf rose, _R. humilis_(A) (_R. lucida_ of Michigan). This and other wild dwarf roses, 3-6 ft., may be useful in landscape work.

Say's Rose, _R. acicularis_ var. _Sayi._(A) Excellent for lawns; 4-5 ft.

Red-leaved rose, _R. ferruginea (R. rubrifolia_).(DD) Excellent foliage; flowers single, pink; 5-6 ft.

Japanese bramble, _Rubus cratgifolius._ Valuable for holding banks; spreads rapidly; very red in winter; 3-4 ft.

Flowering raspberry, mulberry (erroneously), _R. odoratus_(A) Attractive when well grown and divided frequently to keep it fresh; there is a whitish form; 3-4 ft.

Japanese wineberry, _R. phaenicolasius._ Attractive foliage and red hairy canes; fruit edible; 3-5 ft.

Kilmarnock willow, _Salix Capraea,_ var. _pendula._ A small weeping plant grafted on a tall trunk; usually more curious than ornamental.

Rosemary willow, _S. rosmarinifolia_(DD) of nurserymen _(R. incana_ properly). 6-10 ft.

Shining willow, _S. lucida._(A) Very desirable for the edges of water; 6-12 ft.

Long-leaved willow, _S. interior._(A) Our narrowest-leaved native willow; useful for banks; liable to spread too rapidly; 8-12ft.

Fountain willow, _S. purpurea._ Attractive foliage and appearance, particularly if cut back now and then to secure new wood; excellent for holding springy banks; 10-20 ft.

Pussy willow, _S. discolor_(A) Attractive when massed at some distance from the residence; 10-15 ft.

Laurel-leaved willow, _S. pentandra (S. laurifolia_ of cultivators)(DD) See under Trees, p. 329. Many of the native willows might well be cultivated.

Elders, _Sambucus pubens_(A) and _S. Canadensis._(A) The former, the common "red elder," is ornamental both in flower and fruit. _S. Canadensis_ is desirable for its profusion of fragrant flowers appearing in July; the former is 6--7 ft. high and the latter 8-10 ft. Golden-leaved elder, _S. nigra_ var. _foliis aureis,_(DD) and also the cut-leaved elder, are desirable forms of the European species; 5-15 ft.

Buffalo-berry, _Shepherdia argentea_(A) Silvery foliage; attractive and edible berries; 10-15 ft., often tree-like.

Shepherdia, _S. Canadensis._(A) Spreading bush, 3--8 ft., with attractive foliage and fruit.

Early spirea, _Spira arguta._(DD) One of the earliest bloomers among the spireas; 2-4 ft.

Three-lobed spirea, bridal wreath,_S. Van Houttei._(DD) One of the most showy early-flowering shrubs; excellent for massing; blooms a little later than the above; 3-6 ft.

Sorbus-leaved spirea, _S. sorbifolia (Sorbaria sorbifolid_).(DD) Desirable for its late blooming,--late June and early July; 4-5 ft.

Plum-leaved spirea, _S. prunifolia._

Fortune's spirea, _S. Japonica (S. callosa_),(DD) 2 to 4 ft.

Thunberg's spirea, _S. Thunbergii._ Neat and attractive in habit; useful for border-hedges; 3-5 ft.

St. Peter's Wreath, _S. hypericifolia;_ 4-5 ft.

Round-leaved spirea, _S. bracteata._(DD) Follows Van Houttei; 3-6 ft.

Douglas' spirea, _S. Douglasii._(A) Blossoms late,--in July; 4-8 ft.

Hard-hack, _S. tomentosa._(A) Much like the last, but less showy; 3-4 ft.

Willow-leaved spirea,_S. salicifolia._(A)(DD) Blooms late; 4-5 ft.

Bladder-nut, _Staphylea trifolia_(A) Well-known rather coarse native shrub; 6-12 ft.

Colchican bladder-nut, _S. Colchica._ Good early flowering shrub; 6-12 ft.

[Illustration: Fig. 264. A spirea, one of he most servicable flowering shrubs.]

Styrax, _Styrax Japonica._ One of the most graceful of flowering shrubs, producing fragrant flowers in early summer; 8-10 ft. or more.

Snow-berry, _Symphoricarpos racemosus._(A)(DD) Cultivated for its snow-white berries, that hang in autumn and early winter; 3-5 ft.

Indian currant, _S. vulgaris._(DD) Foliage delicate; berries red; valuable for shady places and against walls; 4-5 ft.

Common lilac, _Syringa vulgaris._(DD) (The name syringa is commonly misapplied to the species of _Philadelphus._) The standard spring-blooming shrub in the North; 8-15 ft.; many forms.

Josika lilac, _S. Josikaeca._(DD) Blooming about a week later than S. _vulgaris;_ 8-10 ft.

Persian lilac, _S. Persica._ More spreading and open bush than _S. vulgaris;_ 6-10 ft.

Japanese lilac, _S. Japonica._(DD) Blooms about one month later than common lilac; 15-20 ft.

Rouen lilac, _S. Chinensis_ (or _Rothomagensis_)(DD) Blooms with the common lilac; flowers more highly colored than those of _S. Persica;_ 5-12 ft.

Chinese lilacs, _S. oblata_(DD) and _villosa_.(DD) The former 10-15 ft. and blooming with common lilac; the latter 4-6 ft., and blooming few days later.

Tamarisk, _Tamarix_ of several species, particularly (for the North) _T. Chinensis, T. Africana_ (probably the garden forms under this name are all _T. parviflora_), and _T. hispida (T. Kashgarica_).

All odd shrubs or small trees with very fine foliage, and minute pink flowers in profusion.

Common snowball, _Viburnum Opulus._(A)(DD) The cultivated snowball (DD) is a native of the Old World; but the species grows wild in this country (known as High-bush Cranberry),(DD) and is worthy of cultivation; 6-10 ft.

Japanese snowball, _V. tomentosum_ (catalogued as _V. plicatum_). 6-10 ft.

Wayfaring tree, _V. Lantana._(DD) Fruit ornamental; 8-12 ft., or more.

Plum-leaved haw, _V. prunifolium._(A)(DD) Leaves smooth and glossy; 8-15 ft.

Sweet viburnum or sheep-berry, _Viburnum Lentago._(A) Tall coarse bush, or becoming a small tree.

Arrow-wood, _V. dentatum._(A) Usually 5-8 ft., but becoming taller.

Dockmackie, _V. acerifolium._(A) Maple-like foliage; 4-5 ft.

Withe-rod, lilac viburnum, _V. cassinoides.(A) 2-5_ ft. Other native and exotic viburnums are desirable.

Xanthoceras, _Xanthoceras sorbifolia._ Allied to the buckeyes; hardy in parts of New England; 8--10ft.; handsome.

Prickly ash, _Zanthoxylum Americanum._(A)

_Shrubs for the South._

Many of the shrubs in the preceding catalogue are also well adapted to the southeastern states. The following brief list includes some of the most recommendable kinds for the region south of Washington, although some of them are hardy farther North. The asterisk (A) denotes that the plant is native to this country.

The crape myrtle _(Lagerstroemia Indica_) is to the South what the lilac is to the North, a standard dooryard shrub; produces handsome red (or blush or white) flowers all summer; 8-12 feet.

Reliable deciduous shrubs for the South are: althea, _Hibiscus Syriacus,_ in many forms; _Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis; Azalea calendulacea,(A) mollis,_ and the Ghent azalea _(A. Pontica)_; blue spirea, _Caryopteris Mastacanihus;_ European forms of ceanothus; French mulberry, _Callicarpa Americana_(A); calycanthus(A); flowering willow, _Chilopsis linearis_(A); fringe, _Chionanthus Vir ginica_(A); white alder, _Clethra alnifolia_(A); corchorus, _Kerria Japonica;_ deutzias, of several kinds; goumi, _Eloeagnus longipes;_ pearl bush, _Exochorda grandiflora;_ Japan quince, _Cydonia Japonica;_ golden-bell, _Forsythia viridissima;_ broom, _Spartium junceum;_ hydrangeas, including _H. Otaksa,_ grown under cover in the North; _Jasminum nudiflorum;_ bush honey suckles; mock orange, _Philadelphus coronarius_ and _grandiflorus_(A); pomegranate; white kerria, _Rhodotypos kerrioides;_ smoke tree, _Rhus Cotinus;_ rose locust, _Robinia hispida_(A); spireas of several kinds; _Stuartia pentagyna_(A); snowberry, _Symphoricarpos racemosus_(A); lilacs of many kinds; viburnums of several species, including the European and Japanese snowballs; weigelas of the various kinds; chaste-tree, _Vitex Agnus-Castus;_ Thunberg's barberry; red pepper, _Capsicum frutescens; Plumbago Capensis;_ poinsettia.

A large number of broad-leaved evergreen shrubs thrive in the South, such as: fetter bush, _Andromeda floribunda_(A); some of the palms, as palmettoes(A) and chamrops; cycas and zamia(A) far South; _Abelia grandiflora;_ strawberry tree, _Arbutus Unedo;_ ardisias and aucubas, both grown under glass in the North; azaleas and rhododendrons (not only _R. Catawbiense_(A) but _R. maximum(A) R, Ponticum,_ and the garden forms); _Kalmia latifolia(A); Berberis Japonica_ and mahonia(A); box; _Cleyera Japonica;_ cotoneasters and pyracantha; eleagnus of the types grown under glass in the North; gardenias; euonymus(A); hollies(A); anise-tree, _Illicium anisatum;_ cherry laurels, _Prunus_ or _Laurocerasus_ of several species; mock orange (of the South), _Prunus Caroliniana_(A) useful for hedges; true laurel or bay-tree, _Laurus nobilis;_ privets of several species; _Citrus trifoliata,_ specially desirable for hedges; oleanders; magnolias(A); myrtle, _Myrtus communis; Osmanthus (Olea) fragrans,_ a greenhouse shrub North; _Osmanthus Aquifolium_(A); butcher's broom, _Ruscus aculeatus;_ phillyreas(A); _Pittosporum Tobira;_ shrubby yuccas(A); _Viburnum Tinus_ and others; and the camellia in many forms.

[Illustration XIV: Virginia creeper screen, on an old fence, with wall-flowers and hollyhocks in front.]


Vines do not differ particularly in their culture from other herbs and shrubs, except as they require that supports be provided; and, as they overtop other plants, they demand little room on the ground, and they may therefore be grown in narrow or unused spaces along fences and walls.

In respect to the modes of climbing, vines may be thrown into three groups,--those that twine about the support; those that climb by means of special organs, as tendrils, roots, leaf stalks; those that neither twine nor have special organs but that scramble over the support, as the climbing roses and the brambles. One must recognize the mode of climbing before undertaking the cultivation of any vine.

Vines may also be grouped into annuals, both tender (as morning-glory) and hardy (as sweet pea); biennials, as adlumia, which are treated practically as annuals, being sown each year for bloom the next year; herbaceous perennials, the tops dying each fall down to a persisting root, as cinnamon vine and madeira vine; woody perennials (shrubs), the tops remaining alive, as Virginia creeper, grape, and wistaria.

There is scarcely a garden in which climbing plants may not be used to advantage. Sometimes it may be to conceal obtrusive objects, again to relieve the monotony of rigid lines. They may also be used to run over the ground and to conceal its nakedness where other plants could not succeed. The shrubby kinds are often useful about the borders of clumps of trees and shrubbery, to slope the foliage down to the grass, and to soften or erase lines in the landscape.

In the South and in California, great use is made of vines, not only on fences but on houses and arbors. In warm countries, vines give character to bungalows, pergolas, and other individual forms of architecture.

If it is desired that the vines climb high, the soil should be fertile; but high climbing in annual plants (as in sweet peas) may be at the expense of bloom.

The use of vines for screens and pillar decorations has increased in recent years until now they may be seen in nearly all grounds. The tendency has been towards using the hardy vines, of which the ampelopsis, or Virginia creeper, is one of the most common. This is a very rapid grower, and lends itself to training more readily than many others. The Japan ampelopsis (_A. tricuspidata_ or _Veitchii_) is a good clinging vine, growing very rapidly when once established, and brilliantly colored after the first fall frosts. It clings closer than the other, but is not so hardy. Either of these may be grown from cuttings or division of the plants.

Two recommendable woody twiners of recent distribution are the actinidia and the akebia, both from Japan. They are perfectly hardy, and are rapid growers. The former has large thick glossy leaves, not affected by insects or disease, growing thickly along the stem and branches, making a perfect thatch. It blooms in June. The flowers, which are white with a purple center, are borne in clusters, followed by round or longish edible fruits. The akebia has very neat-cut foliage, quaint purple flowers, and often bears ornamental fruit.

Of the tender vines, the nasturtiums and ipomeas and morning-glories are the most common in the North, while the adlumia, balloon vine, passion vine, gourds, and others, are frequently used. One of the best of recent introduction is the annual hop, especially the variegated variety. This is a very rapid-growing vine, seeding itself each year, and needing little care. The climbing geraniums (_Pelargonium peltatum_ and its derivatives) are much used in California. All the tender vines should be planted after danger of frost is past.

So many good vines are now on the market that one may grow a wide variety for many uses. The home gardener should keep his eyes open for the wild vines of his neighborhood and add the best of them to his collection. Most of these natives are worthy of cultivation. Even the poison ivy makes a very satisfactory cover for rough and inaccessible places in the wild, and its autumn color is very attractive; but of course its cultivation cannot be recommended.

Vines that cling closely to walls of buildings are Virginia creeper (one form does not cling well), Boston or Japanese ivy _(Ampelopsis tricuspidata;_ also _A. Lowii,_ with smaller foliage), English ivy, euonymus _(E. radicans_ and the var. _variegata_), and _Ficus repens_ far south; others that cling less closely are trumpet creeper, and climbing hydrangea _(Schizophragma hydrangeoides)._

Vines for trailing, or covering the ground, are periwinkle _(Vinca),_ herniaria, moneywort _(Lysimachia nummularia_), ground-ivy _(Nepeta Glechoma), Rosa Wichuraiana,_ species of native greenbrier or smilax (not the so-called smilax of florists), _Rubus laciniatus,_ dewberries, and also others that usually are not classed as vines. In the South, Japanese honeysuckle and Cherokee rose perform this function extensively. In California, species of mesembryanthemum (herbaceous) are extensively used as ground covers on banks. Page 86.

For quickly covering brush and rough places, the many kinds of gourds may be used; also pumpkins and squashes, watermelons, _Cucumis foetidissima,_ wild cucumbers _(Echinocystis lobata_ and _Sicyos angulata_), nasturtiums, and other vigorous annuals. Many of the woody perennials may be used for such purposes, but usually these places are only temporary.

For arbors, strong woody vines are desired. Grapes are excellent; in the South the muscadine and scuppernong grapes are adaptable to this purpose (Plate XV). Actinidia and wistaria are also used. Akebia, dutchman's pipe, trumpet creeper, clematis, honeysuckles, may be suggested. Roses are much used in warm climates.

For covering porches, the standard vine in the North is Virginia creeper. Grapes are admirable, particularly some of the wild ones. Japan honeysuckle is much used; and it has the advantage of holding its foliage well into the winter, or even all winter southward. Actinidia, akebia, wistaria, roses, dutch-man's pipe, and clematis are to be recommended; the large-flowered clematises, however, are more valuable for their bloom than for their foliage (_C. paniculata,_ and the native species are better for covering porches).

The annual vines are mostly used as flower-garden subjects, as the sweet pea, morning-glories, mina, moonflowers, cypress vine, nasturtiums, cobea, scarlet runner. Several species of convolvulus, closely allied to the common morning-glory, have now enriched our lists. For baskets and vases the maurandia and the different kinds of thunbergias are excellent.

The moonflowers are very popular in the South, where the seasons are long enough to allow them to develop to perfection. In the North they must be started early (it is a good plan to soak or notch the seeds) and be given a warm exposure and good soil (see in Chap. VIII).

In the following lists, the plants native to the United States or Canada are marked by an asterisk ((A)).

_Annual herbaceous climbers._ (Grown each year from seed.)

  1. _Tendril-climbers_

Adlumia (biennial).(A)

Balloon Vine _(Cardiospermum)_.(A)



Nasturtiums _(Tropaeolum)._

Canary-bird Flower _(Tropaeolum peregrinum_).

Sweet pea (Fig. 265).

Wild cucumber.(A)


Gourds or gourd-like plants, as, _Coccinia Indica;_ Cucumis of several interesting species, as _C. erinaceus, grossularioeformis, odoratissimus;_ dipper or bottle gourd _(Lagenaria)_;

vegetable sponge, dish-cloth gourd, rag gourd _(Luffa);_ balsam apple, balsam pear _(Momordica)_; snake gourd _(Trichosanthes)_; bryonopsis;

_Abobra viridiflora._

All the above except sweet pea are quickly cut down by frost.

_b. Twiners_

Beans, Flowering.

Cypress vine.

Dolichos Lablab, and others.

Hop, Japanese.

Ipomcea Quamoclit (cypress vine) and others.

Moonflower, several species.


Mina lobata.


Mikania scandens.(A)

Butterfly pea, _Centrosema Virginiana._(A)

Scarlet runner, _Phaseolus multiflorus_ (perennial South).

Velvet or banana bean, _Mucuna pruriens_ var. _utilis_ (for the South).

_Perennial herbaceous climbers._

(The tops dying down in fall, but the root living over winter and sending up a new top.)

_a. Tendril-climbers or root-climbers_

Everlasting pea, _Lathyrus latifolius._ Clematis of various species, as _C. aromatica, Davidiana, heracleaefolia (C. tubulosa_), are more or less climbing. Most of the clematises are shrubs.

May-pop, _Passiflora incarnata._(A) Not reliable north of Virginia.

Wild Gourd, _Cucurbita foetidissima (Cucumis perennius_).(A) Excellent strong rugged vine for covering piles on the ground.

Mexican rose, mountain rose, _Antigonon leptopus._

Root tuberous; a rampant grower, with pink bloom; outdoors South, and a conservatory plant North.

Kenilworth ivy, _Linaria Cymbalaria._

A very graceful little perennial vine, re-sowing itself even where not hardy; favorite for baskets.

_b. Herbaceous twiners_

Hop, _Humulus Lupulus._(A)

Produces the hops of commerce, but should be in common use as an ornamental plant.

Chinese yam, cinnamon vine, _Dioscorea divaricata (D. Batatas_).

Climbs high, but does not produce as much foliage as some other vines.

Wild yam, _D. villosa._(A)

Smaller than the preceding; otherwise fully as good.

Ground-nut, _Apios tuberosa._(A)

A bean-like vine, producing many chocolate-brown flowers in August and September.

Scarlet runner and White Dutch runner beans, _Phaseolus multiflorus._

Perennial in warm countries; annual in the North.

Moonflowers, _Ipomcea,_ various species.

Some are perennials far South, but annual North.

Hardy moonflower, _Ipomoea pandurata._(A)

A weed where it grows wild, but an excellent vine for some purposes.

Wild morning-glory, Rutland beauty, _Convolvulus Sepium_(A) and California rose, _C. Japonicus._

The former, white and pink, is common in swales. The latter, in double or semi-double form, is often run wild.

Madeira vine, mignonette vine, _Boussingaultia baselloides._

Root a large, tough, irregular tuber.

Mikania, climbing hempweed, _Mikania scandens._(A)

A good compositous twiner, inhabiting moist lands.

_Woody perennial climbers._

(Climbing shrubs, the tops not dying down in fall except in climates in which they are not hardy.)

_a. Tendril-climbers, root-climbers, scramblers, and trailers_

Virginia creeper, _Ampelopsis quinquefolia,_(A)

The best vine for covering buildings in the colder climates. Plants should be selected from vines of known habit, as some individuals cling much better than others. Var. _hirsuta,_(A) strongly clinging, is recommended by the experimental station at Ottawa, Canada. Var. _Engelmanni_(A) has small and neat foliage.

Japanese ivy, Boston ivy, _A. tricuspidata (A. Veitchii_).

Handsomer than the Virginia creeper, and clings closer, but is often injured by winter in exposed places, especially when young; in northern regions, tops should be protected for first year or two.

Variegated ivy, _Ampelopsis heterophylla_ var. _elegans_ (_Cissus variegata_).

Handsome delicate hardy grape-like vines with mostly three-lobed blotched leaves and bluish berries.

Garden clematis, _Clematis_ of various species and varieties.

Plants of robust and attractive habit, and gorgeous blooms; many garden forms. _C. Jackmani,_ and its varieties, is one of the best. _C. Henryi_ (Fig. 266) is excellent for white flowers. Clematises bloom in July and August.

Wild clematis, _C. Virginiana_(A)

Very attractive for arbors and for covering rude objects. The pistillate plants bear curious woolly balls of fruit.

Wild clematis, _C. verticillaris._(A)

Less vigorous grower than the last, but excellent.

Japanese clematis, _C. paniculata._

The best late-blooming woody vine, producing enormous masses of white flowers in late summer and early fall.

Trumpet creeper, _Tecoma radicans._(A)

One of the best of all free-flowering shrubs; climbs by means of roots; flowers very large, orange-scarlet.

Chinese trumpet creeper, _T. grandiflora (Bignonia grandiflora_). Flowers orange-red; sometimes scarcely climbing.

Bignonia, _Bignonia capreolata._(A)

A good strong evergreen vine, but often a nuisance in fields in the South.

Frost grape, _Vitis cordifolia._(A)

One of the finest of all vines. It is a very tall grower, producing thick, heavy, dark leaves. Its foliage often reminds one of that of the moon-seed. Does not grow readily from cuttings.

Summer and river-bank grapes, _V. bicolor_(A) and _V. vulpina (riparia)_.(A)

The common wild grapes of the Northern states.

Muscadine, scuppernong, _Vitis rotundifolia._(A)

Much used for arbors in the Southern states (Plate XV).

Ivy, _Hedera Helix._

The European ivy does not endure the bright sun of our winter; on the north side of a building it often does well; the best of vines for covering buildings, where it succeeds; hardy in favorable localities as far north as southern Ontario; many forms.

Greenbrier, _Smilax rotundifolia_(A) and _S. hispida._(A)

Unique for the covering of small arbors and summer-houses.

Euonymus, _E. radicans._

A very close-clinging root-climber, excellent for low walls; evergreen; the variegated variety is good.

Climbing fig, _Ficus repens._

Used in greenhouses North, but is hardy far South.

Matrimony vine, boxthorn, _Lycium Chinense._

Flowering all summer; flowers rose-pink and buff, axillary, star-like, succeeded by scarlet berries in the fall; stems prostrate, or scrambling; an old-fashioned vine on porches.

Bitter-sweet, _Solanum Dulcamara._

A common scrambling or semi-twining vine along roadsides, with brilliant red poisonous berries; top dies down or nearly so.

Periwinkles, _Vinca minor_ and _V. major._

The former is the familiar trailing evergreen myrtle, with blue flowers in early spring; in its variegated form the latter is much used for hanging baskets and vases.

Climbing hydrangea, _Schizophragma hydrangeoides._

Clings to walls by rootlets, producing white flowers in midsummer.

Passion-flower, species of _Passiflora_ and _Tacsonia._

Used in the South and in California.

_b. Woody twiners_

Actinidia, _A. arguta._

Very strong grower, with beautiful thick foliage that is not attacked by insects or fungi; one of the best vines for arbors.

Akebia, _A. quinata._ Very handsome and odd Japanese vine; a strong grower, and worthy general planting.

Honeysuckles, woodbine, _Lonicera_ of many kinds.

Japanese honeysuckle, _L. Halliana_ (a form of _L. Japonica_).

10-20 ft.; flowers, white and buff, fragrant mainly in spring and fall; leaves small, evergreen; stems prostrate and rooting, or twining and climbing. Trellises, or for covering rocks and bare places; extensively run wild in the South. Var. _aurea reticidata_ is similar to the type, but with handsome golden appearance.

Belgian Honeysuckle, L. _Periclymenum_ var. _Belgica._

6-10 ft.; monthly; flowers in clusters, rosy red, buff within; makes a large, rounded bush.

Coral or trumpet honeysuckle, _L. sempervirens._(A)

6-15 ft.; June; scattering scarlet flowers through the summer; with no support makes a large rounded bush; for trellises, fences, or a hedge; it is one of the list of hardy trees and shrubs recommended for Canada by the Experiment Station at Ottawa.

Honeysuckle, _L. Caprifolium,_ with cup-like connate leaves.

Good native climbing honeysuckles are _L. flava,_(A) _Sullivanti,_(A) _hirsuta,_(A) _dioica,_(A) and _Douglasi._(A)

Wistaria, _Wistaria Sinensis_ and _W. speciosa._(A)

The Chinese species, _Sinensis,_ is a superb plant; flowers blue-purple; there is a white-flowered variety.

Japanese wistaria, _W. multijuga._

Flowers smaller and later than the Chinese, in looser racemes.

Dutchman's pipe, _Aristolochia macrophytta (A. Sipho_).(A) A robust grower, possessing enormous leaves. Useful for covering verandas and arbors.

Wax-work or false bitter-sweet, _Celastrus scandens._(A) Very ornamental in fruit; flowers imperfect.

Japanese celastrus, _C. orbiculatus (C. articulatus_ of the trade). _C. articulatus_ and _C. scandens_ are in the list of 100 trees and shrubs recommended by the Experiment Station at Ottawa for Canada.

Moonseed, _Menispermum Canadense._(A) A small but very attractive twiner, useful for thickets and small arbors.

Bokhara climbing polygonum, _Polygonum Baldschuanicum._ Hardy North, although the young growth may be killed; flowers numerous, minute, whitish; interesting, but does not make a heavy cover.

Kudzu vine, _Pueraria Thunbergiana (Dolichos Japonicus_). Makes very long growths from a tuberous root; shrubby South, but dies to the ground in the North.

Silk vine, _Periploca Grca._ Purplish flowers in axillary clusters; long, narrow, shining leaves; rapid growing.

Potato vine, _Solanum jasminoides._ A good evergreen vine South, particularly the var. _grandiflorum._

Yellow jasmine, _Gelsemium sempervirens._(A) A good native evergreen vine for the South, with fragrant yellow flowers.

Malayan jasmine, _Trachelospermum_ (or _Rhynchospermum) jasminoides._ A good evergreen vine for the South and in California.

Climbing asparagus, _Asparagus plumosus._ Popular as an outdoor vine far South and in California.

Jasmines, _Jasminum_ of several species. The best known in gardens are _J. nudiflorum,_ yellow in earliest spring, _J. officinale,_ the jessamine of poetry, with white flowers, and _J. Sambac,_ the Arabian jasmine (and related species) with white flowers and unbranched leaves; these are not hardy without much protection north of Washington or Philadelphia, and _J. Sambac_ only far South.

Bougainvillea, _Bougainvillaea glabra_ and _B. spectabilis._

The magenta-flowered variety, sometimes seen in conservatories in the North, is a popular outdoor vine in the South and is profusely used in southern California. The red-flowered form is less seen, but is preferable in color.

Wire-vine (polygonum of florists), _Muehlenbeckia complexa._

Abundantly used on buildings and chimneys in southern California.

_Climbing roses._

The roses do not climb nor possess any special climbing organs; therefore they must be provided with a trellis or woven-wire fence. Some of the roses classed as climbing are such as only need good support, Fig. 267. For culture of roses, see Chapter VIII.

The most popular climbing or pillar rose at present is Crimson Rambler, but while it makes a great display of flowers, it is not the best climbing rose. Probably the best of the real climbing roses for this country, bloom, foliage, and habit all considered, are the derivatives of the native prairie rose, _Rosa setigera_ (native as far north as Ontario and Wisconsin). Baltimore Belle and Queen of the Prairie belong to this class.

[Illustration XV: Scuppernong grape, the arbor vine of the South. This plate shows the noted scuppernongs on Roanoke Island, of which the origin is unknown, but which were of great size more than one hundred years ago.]

The climbing polyantha roses (hybrids of _Rosa multiflora_ and other species) include the class of "rambler" roses that has now come to be large, including not only the Crimson Rambler, but forms of other colors, single and semi-double, and various climbing habits; a very valuable and hardy class of roses, particularly for trellises.

The Memorial rose _(R. Wichuraiana_) is a trailing, half-evergreen, white-flowered species, very useful for covering banks and rocks. Derivatives of this species of many kinds are now available, and are valuable.

The Ayrshire roses _(R. arvensis_ var. _capreolata_) are profuse but rather slender growers, hardy North, bearing double white or pink flowers.

The Cherokee rose _(R. Icevigata_ or _R. Sinica_) is extensively naturalized in the South, and much prized for its large white bloom and shining foliage; not hardy in the North.

The Banksia rose _(R. Banksice_) is a strong climbing rose for the South and California with yellow or white flowers in clusters. A larger-flowered form _(R. Fortuneana_) is a hybrid of this and the Cherokee rose.

The climbing tea and noisette roses, forms of _R. Chinensis_ and _R. Noisettiana,_ are useful in the open in the South.


A single tree may give character to an entire home property; and a place of any size that does not have at least one good tree usually lacks any dominating landscape note.

Likewise, a street that is devoid of good trees cannot be the best residential section; and a park that lacks well-grown trees is either immature or barren.

Although the list of good and hardy lawn and street trees is rather extensive, the number of kinds generally planted and recognized is small. Since most home places can have but few trees, and since they require so many years to mature, it is natural that the home-maker should hesitate about experimenting, or trying kinds that he does not himself know. So the home-maker in the North plants maples, elms, and a white birch, and in the South a magnolia and China-berry. Yet there are numbers of trees as useful as these, the planting of which might give our premises and streets a much richer expression.

It is much to be desired that some of the trees with "strong" and rugged characters be introduced into the larger grounds; such, for example, as the hickories and oaks. These may often transplant with difficulty, but the effort to secure them is worth the expenditure. Good trees of oaks, and others supposed to be difficult to transplant, may now be had of the leading nurserymen. The pin oak _(Quercus palustris_) is one of the best street trees and is now largely planted.

It is at least possible to introduce a variety of trees into a city or village, by devoting one street or a series of blocks to a single kind of tree,--one street being known by its lindens, one by its plane-trees, one by its oaks, one by its hickories, one by its native birches, beech, coffee-tree, sassafras, gum or liquidambar, tulip tree, and the like. There is every reason why a city, particularly a small city or a village, should become to some extent an artistic expression of its natural region.

The home-maker is fortunate if his area already possesses well-grown large trees. It may even be desirable to place the residence with reference to such trees (Plate VI); and the planning of the grounds should accept them as fixed points to which to work. The operator will take every care to preserve and safeguard sufficient of the standing trees to give the place singularity and character.

The care of the tree should include not only the protecting of it from enemies and accidents, but also the maintaining of its characteristic features. For example, the natural rough bark should be maintained against the raids of tree-scrapers; and the grading should not be allowed to disguise the natural bulge of the tree at the base, for a tree that is covered a foot or two above the natural line is not only in danger of being killed, but it looks like a post.

The best shade trees are usually those that are native to the particular region, since they are hardy and adapted to the soil and other conditions. Elms, maples, basswoods, and the like are nearly always reliable. In regions in which there are serious insect enemies or fungous diseases, the trees that are most likely to be attacked may be omitted. For instance, in parts of the East the chestnut bark-disease is a very great menace; and it is a good plan in such places to plant other trees than chestnuts.

A good shade tree is one that has a heavy foliage and dense head, and that is not commonly attacked by repelling insects and diseases. Trees for shade should ordinarily be given sufficient room that they may develop into full size and symmetrical heads. Trees may be planted as close as 10 or 15 feet apart for temporary effect; but as soon as they begin to crowd they should be thinned, so that they develop their full characteristics as trees.

Trees may be planted in fall or spring. Fall is desirable, except for the extreme North, if the land is well drained and prepared and if the trees may be got in early; but under usual conditions, spring planting is safer, if the stock has been wintered well (see discussion under Shrubs, p. 290). Planting and pruning are discussed on pp. 124 and 139.

If one desires trees with conspicuous bloom, they should be found among the magnolias, tulip trees, koelreuteria, catalpas, chestnuts, horse-chestnut and buckeyes, cladrastis, black or yellow locust, wild black cherry, and less conspicuously in the lindens; and also in such half-trees or big shrubs as cercis, cytisus, flowering dogwood, double-flowered and other forms of apples, crab-apples, cherries, plums, peaches, hawthorn or cratgus, amelanchier, mountain ash.

Among drooping or weeping trees the best may be found in the willows _(Salix Babylonica_ and others), maples (Wier's), birch, mulberry, beech, ash, elm, cherry, poplar, mountain ash.

Purple-leaved varieties occur in the beech, maple, elm, oak, birch, and others.

Yellow-leaved and tricolors occur in the maple, oak, poplar, elm, beech, and other species.

Cut-leaved forms are found in birch, beech, maple, alder, oak, basswood, and others.

_List of hardy deciduous trees for the North._

(The genera are arranged alphabetically. Natives are marked by (A); good species for shade trees by (D); those recommended by the Experiment Station at Ottawa, Ontario, by DD)

In a number of the genera, the plants may be shrubby rather than arboreus in some regions (see the Shrub list), as in acer _(A. Ginnala, A. spicatum_), sculus, betula _(B. pumila_), carpinus, castanea (_C. pumila_), catalpa _(C. ovata_), cercis, magnolia (_M. glauca_ particularly), ostrya, prunus, pyrus, salix, sorbus.

Norway maple, _Acer platanoides._(D, DD) One of the finest medium-sized trees for single lawn specimens; there are several horticultural varieties. Var. _Schwedleri_(DD) is one of the best of purple-leaved trees. The Norway maple droops too much and is too low-headed for roadside planting.

Black sugar maple, _A. nigrum._(A, DD) Darker and softer in aspect than the ordinary sugar maple.

Sugar maple, _A. saccharum._(A, DD) This and the last are among the very best roadside trees.

Silver maple, _A. saccharinum (A. dasycarpum_).(A, DD) Desirable for water-courses and for grouping; succeeds on both wet and dry lands.

Wier's cut-leaved silver maple, _A. saccharinum_ var. _Wieri._(D, DD)

Light and graceful; especially desirable for pleasure grounds.

Red, soft, or swamp maple, _A. rubrum._(A) Valuable for its spring and autumn colors, and for variety in grouping.

Sycamore maple, _A. Pseudo-platanus._ A slow grower, to be used mostly as single specimens. Several horticultural varieties.

English maple, _A. campestre._ A good medium-sized tree of slow growth, not hardy on our northern borders; see under Shrubs (p. 291).

Japan maple, _A. palmatum (A. polymorphum)_. In many forms, useful for small lawn specimens; does not grow above 10-20 ft.

Siberian maple, _A. Ginnala._(DD) Attractive as a lawn specimen when grown as a bush; the autumn color is very bright; small tree or big shrub.

Mountain maple, _A. spicatum._(A) Very bright in autumn.

Box-elder, _Acer Negundo (Negundo aceroides_ or _fraxinifolium_).(A)(D) Very hardy and rapid growing; much used in the West as a windbreak, but not strong in ornamental features.

Horse chestnut, _sculus Hippocastanum._(D)(DD) Useful for single specimens and roadsides; many forms.

Buckeye, _. octandra (. flava)_(A)(DD)

Ohio buckeye, _. glabra_(A)

Red buckeye, _. cornea (. rubicunda)_.

Ailanthus, _Ailanthus glandulosa._ A rapid grower, with large pinnate leaves; the staminate plant possesses a disagreeable odor when it flowers; suckers badly; most useful as a shrub; see the same under Shrubs (also Fig. 50).

Alder, _Alnus glutinosa._ The var. _imperialis_(DD) is one of the best cut-leaved small trees.

European birch, _Betula alba._

Cut-leaved weeping birch, _B. alba_ var. _laciniata pendula._(DD)

American white birch, _B. populifolia._(A)

Paper, or canoe birch, _B. papyrifera._(A)

Cherry birch, _B. lenta._ (A)

Well-grown specimens resemble the sweet cherry; both this and the yellow birch (_B. lutea_(A)) make attractive light-leaved trees; they are not appreciated.

Hornbeam or blue beech, _Carpinus Americana._(A) Chestnut, _Castanea saliva_(D) and _C. Americana._(A)(D)

Showy catalpa, _Catalpa speciosa._(D)(DD) Very dark, soft-foliaged tree of small to medium size; showy in flower; for northern regions should be raised from northern-grown seed.

Smaller catalpa, _C. bignonioides._(D) Less showy than the last, blooming a week or two later; less hardy.

Japanese catalpa, _C. ovata_ (_C. Koempferi_).(DD) In northern sections often remains practically a bush.

Nettle-tree, _Celtis occidentalis._(A)

Katsura-tree, _Cercidiphyllum Japonicum._(DD) A small or medium-sized tree of very attractive foliage and habit.

Red-bud, or Judas-tree, _Cercis Canadensis._(A) Produces a profusion of rose-purple pea-like flowers before the leaves appear; foliage also attractive.

Yellow-wood, or virgilia, _Cladrastis tinctoria._(A) One of the finest hardy flowering trees.

Beech, _Fagus ferruginea._(A)(D) Specimens which are symmetrically developed are among our best lawn trees; picturesque in winter.

European beech, _F. sylvatica._(D) Many cultural forms, the purple-leaved being everywhere known. There are excellent tricolored varieties and weeping forms.

Black ash, _Fraxinus nigra_ (_F. sambucifolia_).(A)(D) One of the best of the light-leaved trees; does well on dry soils, although native to swamps; not appreciated.

White ash, _F. Americana._(A)(D)

European ash, _F. excelsior._(D) There is a good weeping form of this.

Maiden-hair tree, _Ginkgo biloba_ (_Salisburia adiantifolia_).(DD) Very odd and striking; to be used for single specimens or avenues.

Honey locust, _Gleditschia triacanthos._(A)(D) Tree of striking habit, with big branching thorns and very large pods; there is also a thornless form.

Kentucky coffee-tree, _Gymnocladus Canadensis._(A) Light and graceful; unique in winter.

Bitternut, _Hicoria minima_ (or _Carya amara_).(A) Much like black ash in aspect; not appreciated.

Hickory, _Hicoria ovata_ (or _Carya_) (A)(D)(DD) and others.

Pecan, _H. Pecan._(A)(D) Hardy in places as far north as New Jersey, and reported still farther.

Butternut, _Juglans cinerea._(A)

Walnut, _J. nigra._(A)

Varnish-tree, _Koelreuteria paniculata._ A medium-sized tree of good character, producing a profusion of golden-yellow flowers in July; should be better known.

European larch, _Larix decidua (L. Europoea_).(DD)

American larch or tamarack, _L. Americana._(A)

Gum-tree, sweet gum, _Liquidambar styraciflua._(A)(D) A good tree, reaching as far north as Connecticut, and hardy in parts of western New York although not growing large; foliage maple-like; a characteristic tree of the South.

Tulip tree or whitewood, _Liriodendron Tulipifera._(A)(D) Unique in foliage and flower and deserving to be more planted.

Cucumber tree, _Magnolia acuminata._(A)(D) Native in the Northern states; excellent.

White bay-tree, _M. glauca._(A)(D) Very attractive small tree, native along the coast to Massachusetts; where not hardy, the young growth each year is good.

Of the foreign magnolias hardy in the North, two species and one group of hybrids are prominent: _M. stellata_ (or _M. Halleana_) and _M. Yulan_ (or _M. conspicua),_ both white-flowered, the former very early and having 9-18 petals and the latter (which is a larger tree) having 6-9 petals; _M. Soulangeana,_ a hybrid group including the forms known as _Lennei, nigra, Norbertiana, speciosa, grandis._ All these magnolias are deciduous and bloom before the leaves appear.

Mulberry, _Morus rubra._(A)

White mulberry, _M. alba._

Russian mulberry, _M. alba_ var. _Tatarica._ Teas' weeping mulberry is a form of the Russian.

Pepperidge or gum-tree, _Nyssa sylvatica_(A) One of the oddest and most picturesque of our native trees; especially attractive in winter; foliage brilliant red in autumn; most suitable for low lands.

Iron-wood, hop hornbeam, _Ostrya Virginica._(A) A good small tree, with hop-like fruits.

Sourwood, sorrel-tree, _Oxydendrum arboreum._(A) Interesting small tree native from Pennsylvania in the high land south, and should be reliable where it grows wild.

Plane or buttonwood, _Platanus occidentalis_(A)(D)(DD) Young or middle-aged trees are soft and pleasant in aspect, but they soon become thin and ragged below; unique in winter.

European plane-tree, _P. orientalis._(D) Much used for street planting, but less picturesque than the American; several forms.

Aspen, _Populus tremuloides,_(A) Very valuable when well grown; too much neglected (Fig. 33). Most of the poplars are suitable for pleasure grounds, and as nurses for slower growing and more emphatic trees.

Large-toothed aspen, _P. grandidentata._(A) Unique in summer color; heavier in aspect than the above; old trees become ragged.

Weeping poplar, _P. grandidentata,_ var. _pendula._ An odd, small tree, suitable for small places, but, like all weeping trees, likely to be planted too freely.

Cottonwood, _P. deltoides_ (_P. monilifera_).(A) The staminate specimens, only, should be planted if possible, as the cotton of the seed-pods is disagreeable when carried by winds; var. _aurea_(DD) is one of the good golden-leaved trees.

Balm of Gilead, _P. balsamifera_(A) and var. _candicans._(A) Desirable for remote groups or belts. Foliage not pleasant in color.

Lombardy poplar, _P. nigra,_ var. _Italica._

Desirable for certain purposes, but used too indiscriminately, it is likely to be short-lived in northern climates.

White poplar, abele, _P. alba._

Sprouts badly; several forms.

Bolle's poplar, _P. alba,_ var. _Bolleana._

Habit much like the Lombardy; leaves curiously lobed, very white beneath, making a pleasant contrast.

Certinensis poplar, _P. laurifolia_ (_P. Certinensis_).

A very hardy Siberian species, much like _P. deltoides,_ useful for severe climates.

Wild black cherry, _Prunus serotina._(A)

European bird cherry, _Prunus Padus._

A small tree much like the choke cherry, but a freer grower, with larger flowers, and racemes which appear about a week later.

Choke cherry, _P. Virginiana._(A)

Very showy while in flower.

Purple plum, _Prunus cerasifera,_ var. _atropurpurea_ (var. _Pissardi_).

One of our most reliable purple-leaved trees.

Rose-bud cherry, _P. pendula_ (_P. subhirtella_).

A tree of drooping habit and beautiful rose-pink flowers preceding the leaves.

Japanese flowering cherry, _P. Pseudo-Cerasus._

In many forms, the famous flowering cherries of Japan, but not reliable North.

There are ornamental-flowered peaches and cherries, more curious and interesting than useful.

Wild crab, _Pyrus coronaria_(A) and _P. Ioensis._(A)

Very showy while in flower, blooming after apple blossoms have fallen; old specimens become picturesque in form. _P. Ioensis flore pleno_(DD) (Bechtel's Crab) is a handsome double form.

Siberian crab, _P. baccata._(DD) Excellent small tree, both in flower and fruit.

Flowering crab, _Pyrus floribunda._ Pretty both in flower and fruit; a large shrub or small tree; various forms.

Hall's crab, _P. Halliana_ (_P. Parkmani_). One of the best of the flowering crabs, particularly the double form. Various forms of double-flowering apple are on the market.

Swamp white oak, _Quercus bicolor._(A)(D) A desirable tree, usually neglected; very picturesque in winter.

Bur oak, _Q. macrocarpa._(A)(D)

Chestnut oak, _Q. Prinus,_(A)(D) and especially the closely related _Q. Muhlenbergii_ (or _Q. acuminata_).(A)(D)

White oak, _Q. alba_(A)(D)

Shingle oak, _Q. imbricaria._(A)(D)

Scarlet oak, _Q. coccinea._(A)(D) This and the next two are glossy-leaved, and are desirable for bright planting.

Black oak, _Q. velutina_ (_Q. tinctoria_).(A)(D)

Red oak, _Q. rubra._(A)(D)(DD)

Pin oak, _Q. palustris._(A)(D) Excellent for avenues; transplants well.

Willow oak, _Q. Phellos_(A)

English oak, _Q. Robur._ Many forms represented by two types, probably good species, _Q. pedunculata_ (with stalked acorns) and _Q. sessiliflora_ (with stalkless acorns). Some of the forms are reliable in the Northern states.

The oaks are slow growers and usually transplant with difficulty. Natural specimens are most valuable. A large well-grown oak is one of the grandest of trees.

Locust, _Robinia Pseudacacia._(A)(D) Attractive in flower; handsome as single specimens when young; many forms; used also for hedges.

Peach-leaved willow, _Salix amygdaloides._(A) Very handsome small tree, deserving more attention. This and the next valuable in low places or along water-courses.

Black willow, _S. nigra._(A)

Weeping willow, _S. Babylonica._

To be planted sparingly, preferably near water; the sort known as the Wisconsin weeping willow appears to be much hardier than the common type; many forms.

White willow, _S. alba,_ and various varieties, one of which is the Golden willow.

Tree willows are most valuable, as a rule, when used for temporary plantations or as nurses for better trees.

Laurel-leaved willow, _S. laurifolia_(DD)

A small tree used in cold regions for shelter-belts; also a good ornamental tree. See also under Shrubs.

Sassafras, _Sassafras officinalis._(A)(D)

Suitable in the borders of groups or for single specimens; peculiar in winter; too much neglected.

Rowan or European mountain ash, _Sorbus Aucuparia_ (_Pyrus Aucuparia_).(DD)

Service-tree, _S. domestica._

Fruit handsomer than that of the mountain ash and more persistent; small tree.

Oak-leaved mountain ash, _S. hybrida_ (_S. quercifolia_).

Small tree, deserving to be better known.

Bald cypress, _Taxodium distichum._(A)

Not entirely hardy at Lansing, Mich.; often becomes scraggly after fifteen or twenty years, but a good tree; many cultural forms.

American linden or basswood, _Tilia Americana._(A)(D)

Very valuable for single trees on large lawns, or for roadsides.

European linden, _T. vulgaris_ and _T. platyphyllos_ (_T. Europaea_ of nurserymen is probably usually the latter).(D)

Has the general character of the American basswood.

European silver linden, _T. tomentosa_ and varieties.(D)

Very handsome; leaves silvery white beneath; among others is a weeping variety.

American elm, _Ulmus Americana._(A)(D)

One of the most graceful and variable of trees; useful for many purposes and a standard street tree.

Cork elm, _U. racemosa._(A) Softer in aspect than the last, and more picturesque in winter, having prominent ridges of bark on its branches; slow grower.

Red or slippery elm, _U. fulva._(A) Occasionally useful in a group or shelter-belt; a stiff grower.

English elm, _U. campestris,_ and Scotch or wych elm, _U. scabra_ (_U. mantana_). Often planted, but are inferior to _U. Americana_ for street planting, although useful in collections. These have many horticultural forms.

_Non-coniferous trees for the South._

Among deciduous trees for the region of Washington and south may be mentioned: Acer, the American and European species as for the North; _Catalpa bignonioides_ and especially _C. speciosa;_ celtis; cercis, both American and Japanese; flowering dogwood, profusely native; white ash; ginkgo; koelreuteria; sweet gum (liquidambar); American linden; tulip tree; magnolias much as for the North; China-berry (_Melia Azedarach_); Texas umbrella-tree (var. _umbraculiformis_ of the preceding); mulberries; oxydendrum; paulownia; oriental plane-tree; native oaks of the regions; _Robinia Pseudacacia;_ weeping willow; _Sophora Japonica; Sterculia platanifolia;_ American elm.

Broad-leaved evergreens of real tree size useful for the South may be found among the cherry laurels, magnolias, and oaks. Among the cherry laurels are: Portugal laurel (_Prunus Lusitanica_), English cherry laurel in several forms (_P. Laurocerasus_), and the "mock-orange" or "wild orange" (_P. Caroliniana_). In magnolia, the splendid _M. grandiflora_ is everywhere used. In oaks, the live-oak (_Quercus Virginiana,_ known also as _Q. virens_ and _Q. sempervirens_) is the universal species. The cork oak (_Q. Suber_) is also recommended.

[Illustration XVI: The flower-garden of China asters with border, one of the dusty millers _(Centaurea)._]


In this country the word "evergreen" is understood to mean coniferous trees with persistent leaves, as pines, spruces, firs, cedars, junipers, arborvit, retinosporas, and the like. These trees have always been favorites with plant lovers, as they have very distinctive forms and other characteristics. Many of them are of the easiest culture.

It is a common notion that, since spruces and other conifers grow so symmetrically, they will not stand pruning; but this is an error. They may be pruned with as good effect as other trees, and if they tend to grow too tall, the leader may be stopped without fear. A new leader will arise, but in the meantime the upward growth of the tree will be somewhat checked, and the effect will be to make the tree dense. The tips of the branches may also be headed in with the same effect. The beauty of an evergreen lies in its natural form; therefore, it should not be sheared into unusual shapes, but a gentle trimming back, as I suggested, will tend to prevent the Norway spruce and others from growing open and ragged. After the tree attains some age, 4 or 5 in. may be taken off the ends of the main branches every year or two (in spring before growth begins) with good results. This slight trimming is ordinarily done with Waters's long-handled pruning shears.

There is much difference of opinion as to the proper time for the transplanting of evergreens, which means that there is more than one season in which they may be moved. It is ordinarily unsafe to transplant them in the fall in northern climates or bleak situations, since the evaporation from the foliage during the winter is likely to injure the plant. The best results are usually secured in spring or summer planting. In spring they may be moved rather late, just as new growth is beginning. Some persons also plant them in August or early September, as the roots secure a hold on the soil before winter. In the Southern states transplanting may be done at most times of the year, but late fall and early spring are usually advised.

In transplanting conifers, it is very important that the roots be not exposed to the sun. They should be moistened and covered with burlaps or other material. The holes should be ready to receive them. If the trees are large, or if it has been necessary to trim in the roots, the top should be cut when the tree is set.

Large evergreens (those 10 ft. and more high) are usually best transplanted late in winter, at a time when a large ball of earth may be moved with them. A trench is dug around the tree, it being deepened a little day by day so that the frost can work into the earth and hold it in shape. When the ball is thoroughly frozen, it is hoisted on to a stone-boat or truck (Fig. 148) and moved to its new position.

Perhaps the handsomest of all the native conifers of the northeastern United States is the ordinary hemlock, or hemlock spruce (the one so much used for lumber); but it is usually difficult to move. Transplanted trees from nurseries are usually safest. If the trees are taken from the wild, they should be selected from open and sunny places.

For neat and compact effects near porches and along walks, the dwarf retinosporas are very useful.

Most of the pines and spruces are too coarse for planting very close to the residence. They are better at some distance removed, where they serve as a background to other planting. If they are wanted for individual specimens, they should be given plenty of room, so that the limbs will not be crowded and the tree become misshapen. Whatever else is done to the spruces and firs, the lower limbs should not be trimmed up, at least not until the tree has become so old that the lowest branches die. Some species hold their branches much longer than others. The oriental spruce (_Picea orientalis_) is one of the best in this respect. The occasional slight heading-in, that has been mentioned, will tend to preserve the lower limbs, and it will not be marked enough to alter the form of the tree.

The number of excellent coniferous evergreens now offered in the American trade is large. They are slow of growth and require much room if good specimens are to be obtained; but if the space can be had and the proper exposure secured, no trees add greater dignity and distinction to an estate. Reliable comments on the rarer conifers may be found in the catalogues of the best nurserymen.

_List of shrubby conifers._

The following list contains the most usual of the shrub-like coniferous evergreens, with (A) to mark those native to this country. The (DD) in this and the succeeding list marks those species that are found to be hardy at Ottawa, Ontario, and are recommended by the Central Experimental Farm of Canada.

Dwarf arborvit, _Thuja occidentalis._(A)

There are many dwarf and compact varieties of arborvit, most of which are excellent for small places. The most desirable for general purposes, and also the largest, is the so-called Siberian. Other very desirable forms are those sold as _globosa, ericoides, compacta,(DD) Hovey,(DD) Ellwangeriana,(DD) pyramidalis,(DD) Wareana_ (or _Sibirica_),(DD) and _aurea Douglasii._(DD)

Japanese arborvit or retinospora, _Chamoecyparis_ of various species.

Retinosporas(DD) under names as follows: _Cupressus ericoides,_ 2 ft., with fine soft delicate green foliage that assumes a purplish tinge in winter; _C. pisifera,_ one of the best, with a pendulous habit and bright green foliage; _C. pisifera_ var. _filifera,_ with drooping branches and thread-like pendulous branches; _C. pisifera_ var. _plumosa,_ more compact than _P. pisifera_ and feathery; var. _aurea_ of the last, "one of the most beautiful golden-leaved evergreen shrubs in cultivation."

Juniper, _Juniperus communis_(A) and garden varieties.

The juniper is a partially trailing plant, of loose habit, suitable for banks and rocky places. There are upright and very formal varieties of it, the best being those sold as var. _Hibernica (fastigiata)_,(DD) "Irish juniper," and var. _Suecica,_ "Swedish juniper." Northern juniper, _J. Sabina,_ var. _prostrata_(A) One of the best of the low, diffuse conifers; var. _tamariscifolia,_(DD) 1-2 ft.

Chinese and Japanese junipers in many forms, _J. Chinensis._

Dwarf Norway spruce, _Picea excelsa,_ dwarf forms. Several very dwarf sorts of the Norway spruce are in cultivation, some of which are to be recommended.

Dwarf pine, _Pinus montana,_ var. _pumilio._

Mugho pine, _Pinus montana,_ var. _Mughus._(DD) There are other desirable dwarf pines.

Wild yew, _Taxus Canadensis._(A) Common in woods; a wide-spreading plant known as "ground hemlock"; 3-4 ft.

_Arboreous conifers._

The evergreen conifers that one is likely to plant may be roughly classed as pines; spruces and firs; cedars and junipers; arborvit; yews.

White Pine, _Pinus Strobus._(A)(DD) The best native species for general planting; retains its bright green color in winter.

Austrian pine, _P. Austriaca._(DD) Hardy, coarse, and rugged; suitable only for large areas; foliage very dark.

Scotch pine, _P. sylvestris._(DD) Not so coarse as Austrian pine, with a lighter and bluer foliage.

Red pine, P. _resinosa_(A)(DD) Valuable in groups and belts; usually called "Norway pine"; rather heavy in expression.

Bull pine, P. _ponderosa._(A)(DD) A strong majestic tree, deserving to be better known in large grounds; native westward.

Cembrian pine, _Pinus Cembra._ A very fine slow-growing tree; one of the few standard pines suitable for small places.

Scrub pine, _P. divaricata_ (_P. Banksiana_).(A)

A small tree, more odd and picturesque than beautiful, but desirable in certain places.

Mugho pine, _P. montana_ var. _Mughus._(DD)

Usually more a bush than a tree (2 to 12 ft.), although it may attain a height of 20-30 ft.; mentioned under Shrubs.

Norway spruce, _Picea excelsa._(DD)

The most commonly planted spruce; loses much of its peculiar beauty when thirty to fifty years of age; several dwarf and weeping forms.

White spruce, _P. alba._(A)(DD)

One of the finest of the spruces; a more compact grower than the last, and not so coarse; grows slowly.

Oriental spruce, _P. orientalis._

Especially valuable from its habit of holding its lowest limbs; grows slowly; needs some shelter.

Colorado blue spruce, _P. pungens._(A)(DD)

In color the finest of the conifers; grows slowly; seedlings vary much in blueness.

Alcock's spruce, _P. Alcockiana._(DD)

Excellent; foliage has silvery under surfaces.

Hemlock spruce, _Tsuga Canadensis._(A)

The common lumber hemlock, but excellent for hedges and as a lawn tree; young trees may need partial protection from sun.

White fir, _Abies concolor._(A)(DD)

Probably the best of the native firs for the northeastern region; leaves broad, glaucous.

Nordmann's fir, _A. Nordmanniana._

Excellent in every way; leaves shining above and lighter beneath.

Balsam fir, _A. balsamea._(A)

Loses most of its beauty in fifteen or twenty years.

Douglas fir, _Pseudotsuga Douglasii._(A)(DD)

Majestic tree of the northern Pacific slope, hardy in the east when grown from seeds from far north or high mountains.

Red cedar, _Juniperus Virginiana_(A)

A common tree, North and South; several horticultural varieties.

Arborvitae (white cedar, erroneously), _Thuja occidentalis._(A)

Becomes unattractive after ten or fifteen years on poor soils; the horticultural varieties are excellent; see p. 333, and Hedges, p. 220.

Japanese yew, _Taxus cuspidata._

Hardy small tree.

_Conifers for the South._

Evergreen conifers, trees and bushes, for regions south of Washington: _Abies Fraseri_ and _A. Picea_ (_A. pectinata_); Norway spruce; true cedars, _Cedrus Atlantica_ and _Deodara;_ cypress, _Cupressus Goveniana, majestica, sempervirens; Chamoecyparis Lawsoniana;_ practically all junipers, including the native cedar (_Juniperus Virginiana_); practically all arborvit, including the oriental or biota group; retinosporas (forms of chamcyparis and thuja of several kinds); Carolina hemlock, _Tsuga Caroliniana;_ English yew, _Taxus baccata; Libocedrus decurrens;_ cephalotaxus and podocarpus; cryptomeria; Bhotan pine, _Pinus excelsa;_ and the native pines of the regions.


Although the making of window-gardens may not be properly a part of the planting and ornamenting of the home grounds, yet the appearance of the residence has a marked effect on the attractiveness or unattractiveness of the premises; and there is no better place than this in which to discuss the subject. Furthermore, window-gardening is closely associated with various forms of temporary plant protection about the residence (Fig. 268).

Window-gardens are of two types: the window-box and porch-box type, in which the plants are grown outside the window and which is a summer or warm-weather effort; the interior or true window-garden, made for the enjoyment of the family in its internal relations, and which is chiefly a winter or cold-weather effort.

[Illustration: Fig. 268. A protection for chrysanthemums. Very good plants can be grown under a temporary shed cover. The roof may be of glass, oiled paper, or even of wood. Such a shed cover will afford a very effective and handy protection for many plants.]

_The window-box for outside effect._

Handsomely finished boxes, ornamental tiling, and bracket work of wood and iron suitable for fitting out windows for the growing of plants, are on the market; but such, while desirable, are by no means necessary. A stout pine box of a length corresponding to the width of the window, about 10 inches wide and 6 deep, answers quite as well as a finer box, since it will likely be some distance above the street, and its sides, moreover, are soon covered by the vines. A zinc tray of a size to fit into the wooden box may be ordered of the tinsmith. It will tend to keep the soil from drying out so rapidly, but it is not a necessity. A few small holes in the bottom will provide for drainage; but with carefulness in watering these are not necessary, since the box by its exposed position will dry out readily during summer weather, unless the position is a shaded one. In the latter case provision for good drainage is always advisable.

Since there is more or less cramping of roots, it will be necessary to make the soil richer than would be required were the plants to grow in the garden. The most desirable soil is one that does not pack hard like clay, nor contract much when dry, but remains porous and springy. Such a soil is found in the potting earth used by florists, and it may be obtained from them at 50 cents to $1 a barrel. Often the nature of the soil will be such as to make it desirable to have at hand a barrel of sharp sand for mixing with it, to make it more porous and prevent baking. A good filling for a deep box is a layer of clinkers or other drainage in the bottom, a layer of pasture sod, a layer of old cow manure, and fill with fertile garden earth.

Some window-gardeners pot the plants and then set them in the window-box, filling the spaces between the pots with moist moss. Others plant them directly in the earth. The former method, as a general rule, is to be preferred in the winter window-garden; the latter in the summer.

The plants most valuable for outside boxes are those of drooping habit, such as lobelias, tropeolums, othonna, Kenilworth ivy, verbena (Fig. 269), sweet alyssum, and petunia. Such plants may occupy the front row, while back of them may be the erect-growing plants, as geraniums, heliotropes, begonias (Plate XX).

For shady situations the main dependence is on plants of graceful form or handsome foliage; while for the sunny window the selection may be of blooming plants. Of the plants mentioned below for these two positions, those marked with an asterisk (A) are of climbing habit, and may be trained up about the sides of the window.

Just what plants will be most suitable depends on the exposure. For the shady side of the street, the more delicate kinds of plants may be used. For full exposure to the sun, it will be necessary to choose the more vigorous-growing kinds. In the latter position, suitable plants for drooping would be: tropeolums,(A) passifloras,(A) the single petunias, sweet alyssum, lobelias, verbenas, mesembryanthemums. For erect-growing plants: geraniums, heliotropes, phlox. If the position is a shaded one, the drooping plants might be of the following: tradescantia, Kenilworth ivy, senecio(A) or parlor ivy, sedums, moneywort,(A) vinca, smilax,(A) lygodium(A) or climbing fern. Erect-growing plants would be dracenas, palms, ferns, coleus, centaurea, spotted calla, and others.

After the plants have filled the earth with roots, it will be desirable to give the surface among them a very light sprinkling of bone-dust or a thicker coating of rotted manure from time to time during the summer; or instead of this, a watering with weak liquid manure about once a week. This is not necessary, however, until the growth shows that the roots have about exhausted the soil.

In the fall the box may be placed on the inside of the window. In this case it will be desirable to thin out the foliage somewhat, shorten in some of the vines, and perhaps remove some of the plants. It will also be desirable to give a fresh coating of rich soil. Increased care will be necessary, also, in watering, since the plants will have less light than previously, and, moreover, there may be no provision for drainage.

Porch-boxes may be made in the same general plan. Since the plants are likely to be injured in porch-boxes, and since these boxes should have some architectural effect, it is well to use abundantly of rather heavy greenery, such as swordfern (the common form of _Nephrolepis exaltata_) or the Boston fern, _Asparagus Sprengeri,_ wandering jew, the large drooping vinca (perhaps the variegated form), aspidistra. With these or similar things constituting the body of the box planting, the flowering plants may be added to heighten the effect.

_The inside window-garden, or "house plants._"

The winter window-garden may consist simply of a jardinire, or a few choice pot-plants on a stand at the window, or of a considerable collection with more or less elaborate arrangements for their accommodation in the way of box, brackets, shelves, and stands. Expensive arrangements are by no means necessary, nor is a large collection. The plants and flowers themselves are the main consideration, and a small collection well cared for is better than a large one unless it can be easily accommodated and kept in good condition.

The box will be seen near at hand, and so it may be more or less ornamental in character. The sides may be covered with ornamental tile held in place by molding; or a light latticework of wood surrounding the box is pretty. But a neatly made and strong box of about the dimensions mentioned on page 337, with a strip of molding at the top and bottom, answers just as well; and if painted green, or some neutral shade, only the plants will be seen or thought of. Brackets, jardinires, and stands may be purchased of any of the larger florists.

The box may consist of merely the wooden receptacle; but a preferable arrangement is to make it about eight inches deep instead of six, then have the tinsmith make a zinc tray to fit the box. This is provided with a false wooden bottom, with cracks for drainage, two inches above the real bottom of the tray. The plants will then have a vacant space below them into which drainage water may pass. Such a box may be thoroughly watered as the plants require without danger of the water running on the carpet. Of course, a faucet should be provided at some suitable point on a level with the bottom of the tray, to permit of its being drained every day or so if the water tends to accumulate. It would not do to allow the water to remain long; especially should it never rise to the false bottom, as then the soil would be kept too wet.

The window for plants should have a southern, southeastern, or eastern exposure. Plants need all the light they can get in the winter, especially those that are expected to bloom. The window should be tight-fitting. Shutters and a curtain will be an advantage in cold weather.

Plants like a certain uniformity in conditions. It is very trying on them, and often fatal to success, to have them snug and warm one night and pinched in a temperature only a few degrees above freezing the next. Some plants will live in spite of it, but they cannot be expected to prosper. Those whose rooms are heated with steam, hot water, or hot air will have to guard against keeping rooms too warm fully as much as keeping them too cool. Rooms in brick dwellings that have been warm all day, if shut up and made snug in the evening, will often keep warm over night without heat except in the coldest weather. Rooms in frame dwellings exposed on all sides soon cool down.

It is difficult to grow plants in rooms lighted by gas. Most living-rooms have air too dry for plants. In such cases the bow-window may be set off from the room by glass doors; one then has a miniature conservatory. A pan of water on the stove or on the register and damp moss among the pots, will help to afford plants the necessary humidity.

The foliage will need cleansing from time to time to free it from dust. A bath tub provided with a ready outlet for the water is an excellent place for this purpose. The plants may be turned on their sides and supported on a small box above the bottom of the tub. Then they may be freely syringed without danger of making the soil too wet. It is usually advisable not to wet the flowers, however, especially the white waxen kinds, like hyacinths. The foliage of rex begonias should be cleansed with a piece of dry or only slightly moist cotton. But if the leaves can be quickly dried off by placing them in the open air on mild days, or moderately near the stove, the foliage may be syringed.

Some persons attach the box to the window, or support it on brackets attached below the window-sill; but a preferable arrangement is to support the box on a low and light stand of suitable height provided with rollers. It may then be drawn back from the window, turned around from time to time to give the plants light on all sides, or turned with the attractive side in as may be desired.

Often the plants are set directly in the soil; but if they are kept in pots they may be rearranged, and changed about to give those which need it more light. Larger plants that are to stand on shelves or brackets may be in porous earthenware pots; but the smaller ones that are to fill the window-box may be placed in heavy paper pots. The sides of these are flexible, and the plants in them therefore may be crowded close together with great economy in space. When pots are spaced, damp sphagnum or other moss among them will hold them in place, keep the soil from drying out too rapidly, and at the same time give off moisture, so grateful to the foliage.

In addition to the stand, or box, a bracket for one or more pots on either side of the window, about one-third or half-way up, will be desirable. The bracket should turn on a basal hinge or pivot, to admit of swinging it forward or backward. These bracket plants usually suffer for moisture, and are rather difficult to manage.

Florists now usually grow plants suitable for window-gardens and winter flowering, and any intelligent florist, if asked, will take pleasure in making out a suitable collection. The plants should be ordered early in the fall; the florist will then not be so crowded for time and can give the matter better attention.

Most of the plants suitable for the winter window-garden belong to the groups that florists grow in their medium and cool houses. The former are given a night temperature of about 60, the latter about 50. In each case the temperature is 10 to 15 higher for the daytime. Five degrees of variation below these temperatures will be allowable without any injurious effects; even more may be borne, but not without more or less check to the plants. In bright, sunny weather the day temperature may be higher than in cloudy and dark weather.

Plants for an average night temperature of 60 (trade names).

_Upright flowering plants,_--Abutilons, browallias, calceolaria "Lincoln Park," begonias, bouvardias, euphorbias, scarlet sage, richardia or calla, heliotropes, fuchsias, Chinese hibiscus, jasmines, single petunias, swainsona, billbergia, freesias, geraniums, eupheas.

_Upright foliage plants._--Muehlenbeckia, _Cycas revoluta, Dracoena fragans_ and others, palms, cannas, _Farfugium grande,_ achyranthes, ferns, araucarias, epiphyllums, pandanus or "screw pine," _Pilea arborea, Ficus elastica, Grevillea robusta._

_Climbing plants._--_Asparagus tenuissimus, A. plumosus, Coboea scandens,_ smilax, Japanese hop, Madeira vine (Boussingaultia), _Senecio mikanioides_ and _S. macroglossus_ (parlor ivies). See also list below.

_Low-growing, trailing, or drooping plants._--These may be used for baskets and edgings. Flowering kinds are: Sweet alyssum, lobelia, _Fuchsia procumbens,_ mesembryanthemum, _Oxalis pendula, 0. floribunda_ and others, _Russelia juncea, Mahernia odorata_ or honey-bell.

_Foliage plants of drooping habit._--Vincas, _Saxifraga sarmentosa,_ Kenilworth ivy, tradescantia or wandering jew, _Festuca glauca_(A) othonna, _Isolepsis gracilis,_(A) English ivy, _Selaginella denticulata,_ and others. Some of these plants flower quite freely, but the flowers are small and of secondary consideration. Those with an asterisk (A) droop but slightly.

Plants for an average night temperature of 50.

_Upright flowering plants._--Azaleas, cyclamens, carnations, chrysanthemums, geraniums, Chinese primroses, stevias, marguerite or Paris daisy, single petunias, _Anthemis coronaria,_ camellias, ardisia (berries), cinerarias, violets, hyacinths, narcissus, tulips, the Easter lily when in bloom, and others.

_Upright foliage plants._--Pittosporums, palms, aucuba, euonymus (golden and silvery variegated), araucarias, pandanus, dusty millers.

_Climbing plants._--English ivy, maurandia, senecio or parlor ivy, lygodium (climbing fern).

_Drooping or trailing plants._--Flowering kinds are: Sweet alyssum, _Mahernia odorata,_ Russelia and ivy geranium.

_Bulbs in the window-garden._

Bulbs flowering through the winter add to the list of house plants a charming variety. The labor, time, and skill required is much less than for growing many of the larger plants more commonly used for winter decorations (for instructions on growing bulbs out-of-doors, see p. 281; also the entries in Chapter VIII).

Hyacinths, narcissus, tulips, and crocus, and others can be made to flower in the winter without difficulty. Secure the bulbs so as to be able to pot them by the middle or last of October, or if earlier all the better. The soil should be rich sandy loam, if possible; if not, the best that can be got, to which about one-fourth the bulk of sand is added and mixed thoroughly.

If ordinary flower-pots are to be used, place in the bottom a few pieces of broken pots, charcoal, or small stones for drainage, then fill the pot with dirt so that when the bulbs are set on the dirt the top of the bulb is even with the rim of the pot. Fill around it with soil, leaving just the tip of the bulb showing above the earth. If the soil is heavy, a good plan is to sprinkle a small handful of sand under the bulb to carry off the water, as is done in the beds outdoors. If one does not have pots, he may use boxes. Starch boxes are a good size to use, as they are not heavy to handle; and excellent flowers are sometimes secured from bulbs planted in old tomato-cans. If boxes or cans are used, care must be taken to have holes in the bottoms to let the water run out. A large hyacinth bulb will do well in a 5-inch pot. The same size pot will do for three or four narcissuses or eight to twelve crocuses.

After the bulbs are planted in the pots or other receptacles, they should be placed in a cool place, either in a cold pit or cellar, or on the shady side of a building, or, better yet, plunged or buried up to the rim of the pot in a shady border. This is done to force the roots to grow while the top stands still, as only the bulbs with good roots will give good flowers. When the weather gets so cold that a crust is frozen on the soil, the pots should be covered with a little straw, and as the weather gets colder more straw must be used. In six to eight weeks after planting the bulbs, they should have made roots enough to grow the plant, and they may be taken up and placed in a cool room for a week or so, after which, if they have started into growth, they may be taken into a warmer room where they can have plenty of light. They will grow very rapidly now and will want much water, and after the flowers begin to show, the pots may stand in a saucer of water all the time. When just coming into bloom the plants may have full sunlight part of the time to help bring out the color of the flowers.

Hyacinths, tulips, and narcissus all require similar treatment. When well rooted, which will be in six or eight weeks, they are brought out and given a temperature of some 55 to 60 till the flowers appear, when they should be kept in a cooler temperature, say 50. The single Roman hyacinth is an excellent house plant. The flowers are small, but they are graceful and are well adapted to cutting. It is early.

The Easter lily is managed the same way, except to hasten its flowers it should be kept at not lower than 60 at night. Warmer will be better. Lily bulbs may be covered an inch or more deep in the pots.

Freesias may be potted six or more in a pot of mellow soil, and then started into growth at once. At first they may be given a night temperature of 50; and 55 to 60 when they have begun to grow.

Small bulbs, as snowdrop and crocus, are planted several or a dozen in a pot and buried, or treated like hyacinths; but they are very sensitive to heat, and require to be given the light only when they have started to grow, without any forcing. Forty to 45 will be as warm as they ever need be kept.

_Watering house plants._

It is impossible to give rules for the watering of plants. Conditions that hold with one grower are different from those of another. Advice must be general. Give one good watering at the time of potting, after which no water should be given until the plants really need it. If, on tapping the pot, it gives out a clear ring, it is an indication that water is needed. In the case of a soft-wooded plant, just before the leaves begin to show signs of wilt is the time for watering. When plants are taken up from the ground, or have their roots cut back in repotting, gardeners rely, after the first copious watering, on syringing the tops two or three times each day, until a new root-growth has started, watering at the roots only when absolutely necessary. Plants that have been potted into larger pots will grow without the extra attention of syringing, but those from the borders that have had their roots mutilated or shortened, should be placed in a cool, shady spot and be syringed often. One soon becomes familiar with the wants of individual plants, and can judge closely as to need of water. All soft-wooded plants with a large leaf-surface need more water than hard-wooded plants, and a plant in luxuriant growth of any kind more than one that has been cut back or become defoliated. When plants are grown in living-rooms, moisture must be supplied from some source, and if no arrangement has been made for securing moist air, the plants should be syringed often.

All plant-growers should learn to withhold water when plants are "resting" or not in active growth. Thus camellias, azaleas, rex begonias, palms, and many other things are usually not in their growing period in fall and midwinter, and they should then have only sufficient water to keep them in condition. When growth begins, apply water; and increase the water as the growth becomes more rapid.

_Hanging baskets._

To have a good hanging basket, it is necessary that some careful provision be made to prevent too rapid drying out of the earth. It is customary, therefore, to line the pot or basket with moss. Open wire baskets, like a horse muzzle, are often lined with moss and used for the growing of plants. Prepare the earth by mixing some well-decayed leafmold with rich garden loam, thereby making an earth that will retain moisture. Hang the basket in a light place, but still not in direct sunlight; and, if possible, avoid putting it where it will be exposed to drying wind. In order to water the basket, it is often advisable to sink it into a pail or tub of water.

Various plants are well adapted to hanging baskets. Among the drooping or vine-like kinds are the strawberry geranium, Kenilworth ivy, maurandia, German ivy, canary-bird flower, _Asparagus Sprengeri,_ ivy geranium, trailing fuchsia, wandering jew, and othonna. Among the erect-growing plants that produce flowers, _Lobelia Erinus,_ sweet alyssum, petunias, oxalis, and various geraniums are to be recommended. Among foliage plants such things as coleus, dusty miller, begonia, and some geraniums are adaptable.


A pleasant adjunct to a window-garden, living room, or conservatory, is a large glass globe or glass box containing water, in which plants and animals are living and growing. A solid glass tank or globe is better than a box with glass sides, because it does not leak, but the box must be used if one wants a large aquarium. For most persons it is better to buy the aquarium box than to attempt to make it. Five points are important in making and keeping an aquarium:

(1) The equilibrium between plant and animal life must be secured and maintained;

(2) the aquarium must be open on top to the air or well ventilated;

(3) the temperature should be kept between 40 and 50 for ordinary animals and plants (do not place in full sun in a hot window);

(4) it is well to choose such animals for the aquarium as are adapted to life in still water;

(5) the water must be kept fresh, either by the proper balance of plant and animal life or by changing the water frequently, or by both.

The aquatic plants of the neighborhood may be kept in the aquarium,--such things as myriophyllums, charas, eel-grass, duckmeats or lemnas, cabomba or fish grass, arrow-leafs or sagittaria, and the like; also the parrot's feather, to be bought of florists (a species of myriophyllum). Of animals, there are fishes (particularly minnows), water insects, tadpoles, clams, snails. If the proper balance is maintained between plant and animal life, it will not be necessary to change the water so frequently.