The most effective means of destroying insects and fungi however, in any general or large way, is by the use of various sprays. The two general types of insecticides have already been mentioned--those that kill by poisoning, and those that kill by destroying the body of the insect. Of the former, there are three materials in common use--Paris green, arsenate of lead, and hellebore. Of the latter, the most usual at present are kerosene emulsion, miscible oils, and the lime-sulfur wash.

Sprays for fungi usually depend for their efficiency on some form of copper or sulfur, or both. For surface mildews, as grape mildew, dusting flowers of sulfur on the foliage is a protection. In most cases, however, it is necessary to apply materials in liquid form, because they can be more thoroughly and economically distributed, and they adhere to the foliage better. The best general fungicide is the bordeaux mixture. It is generally, however, not advisable to use the bordeaux mixture on ornamental plants, because it discolors the foliage and makes the plants look very untidy. In such cases it is best to use the ammoniacal copper solution, which leaves no stain.

In all spraying operations it is especially important that the applications be made the very moment the insect or disease is discovered, or in the case of fungous diseases, if one is expecting an attack, it is well to make an application of bordeaux mixture even before the disease appears. When the fungus once gets inside the plant tissue, it is very difficult to destroy it, inasmuch as fungicides act on these deep-seated fungi very largely by preventing their fruiting and their further spread on the surface of the leaf. For ordinary conditions, from two to four sprayings are necessary to dispatch the enemy. In spraying for insects in home gardens, it is often advisable to make a second application the day following the first one in order to destroy the remaining insects before they recover from the first treatment.

There are many kinds of machines and devices for the application of sprays to plants. For a few individual specimens, the spray may be applied with a whisk, or with a common garden syringe. If one has a few trees to treat, however, it is best to have some kind of bucket pump like those shown in Figs. 221, 222. On a lawn or in a small garden a tank on wheels (Figs. 223, 224, 225) is handy and efficient. In such cases, or even for larger areas, some of the knapsack pumps (Figs. 219, 220) are very desirable. These machines are always serviceable, because the operator stands so near to his work; but as they carry a comparatively small quantity of liquid and do not throw it rapidly, they are expensive when much work is to be done. Yet, in ordinary home grounds, the knapsack pump or compressed-air pump is one of the most efficient and practicable of all the spraying devices.

For large areas, as for small orchards and fields, a barrel pump mounted on a wagon is best. Common types of barrel pumps are shown in Figs. 226, 227, 228. Commercial plantations are now sprayed by power machines. There are many good patterns of spraying machines, and the intending purchaser should send for catalogues to the various manufacturers. The addresses may be found in the advertising pages of rural papers.

As to nozzles for spraying it may be said that there is no one pattern that is best for all purposes. For most uses in home grounds the cyclone or vermorel type (Fig. 233) will give best satisfaction. The pump manufacturers supply special nozzles for their machines.

[Illustration: Fig. 233. Cyclone or vermorel type of nozzle, single and multiple.]